Background: Comparative effectiveness of 7 glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agents on weight loss (WL) in obesity remains unknown. Methods: We performed a systematic review, network meta-analysis (NMA) utilizing the following data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Central and clinical trial registries, from inception to March 2, 2021. The prespecified criteria for study inclusion were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ≥12 weeks’ duration. The data appraisal and extraction were performed by two investigators independently, using the published reports. The main outcomes and statistical methods were weight loss over placebo (WLOP) and adverse events (AEs) among GLP-1 agents using random-effects NMA (frequentist approach); relative ranking using surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) method and certainty of evidence using grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations (GRADE). Findings: 64 RCTs (from 2004 to 2021) included 27018 patients (median of age, 55.1 years old; 57.4% women; baseline weight 94.8kg and BMI 33.0kg/m2; trial duration 26 weeks). Direct meta-analysis showed significant WLOP with: -1.44kg (95% CI, -2.14 to -0.74) with dulaglutide ≥1.5 mg; -1.82kg (-2.42 to -1.23) with exenatide immediate release (IR); -2.20kg (-4.31 to -0.08) with exenatide extended release (ER); -3.20kg (-6.53 to 0.15) with efpeglenatide; -2.72kg (-3.35 to -2.09) with liraglutide ≤1.8mg; -4.49kg (-5.26 to -3.72) with liraglutide >1.8mg; -0.62kg (-1.22 to -0.02) with lixisenatide; -4.33kg (-5.71 to -3.00) with semaglutide SQ <2.4mg; -9.88kg (-13.17 to -6.59) with semaglutide SQ 2.4mg; -2.73kg (-4.81 to -0.65) with semaglutide oral; and -1.71kg (-2.64 to -0.78) with taspoglutide. Highest WLOP were with semaglutide SQ 2.4mg and <2.4mg, and liraglutide >1.8mg (SUCRAs 100, 86.1, 82.8 respectively). Highest SUCRAs for discontinuation due to AEs were with taspoglutide and liraglutide >1.8mg. Risk of bias was high or unclear for random sequence generation (29.7%), allocation concealment (26.6%), and incomplete outcome data (26.6%). Heterogeneity (I2 >50%) in WL and AEs reflected magnitude, not direction of effect.
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