Aqueous flow in humans after adrenalectomy

T. L. Maus, William Francis Young, R. F. Brubaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose. This study was performed to determine if the circadian rhythm of aqueous humor formation and the aqueous humor suppressing effect of β- adrenergic antagonists can occur in the absence of adrenally derived epinephrine. Methods. Twenty-one human subjects who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy were studied during a 28-hour period. The study was divided into four time periods as follows: morning 1 (8 AM to noon), afternoon (noon to 4 PM), night (midnight to 6 AM), and morning 2 (8 AM to noon). At 6:45 AM before the morning 2 measurements, one drop of 0.5% timolol was applied to one eye and one drop of placebo (artificial tears) was applied to the other eye. Topical fluorescein and a scanning fluorophotometer were used to measure the rate of aqueous humor flow. Twenty normal controls were studied in a similar fashion but did not undergo the morning 2 measurement. Results. In the subjects lacking adrenals, the daytime rates of aqueous flow were 3.17 ± 0.78 μl/min (mean ± SD) and 3.16 ± 0.67 μl/min for the morning 1 and afternoon periods, respectively. The rates in daytime periods were not significantly different from each other (P = 0.699). The rate of aqueous flow for the night period was 1.37 ± 0.37 μl/min, a 57% reduction from both morning 1 and afternoon periods (P < 0.001). The morning, afternoon, and night rates of flow in normal controls were not significantly different from the rates in subjects lacking adrenals. For the morning 2 period, the aqueous flow was 2.74 ± 0.54 μl/min for the placebo-treated eye and 1.77 ± 0.38 μl/min for the timolol-treated eye. The rate of aqueous flow was reduced (35%) in the timolol-treated eye when compared to the fellow placebo-treated eye (P < 0.001). The timolol-treated eye also showed a 26% reduction in intraocular pressure when compared to the fellow placebo-treated eye (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The study demonstrates that both the circadian rhythm of aqueous flow and the daytime response to timolol persist in the absence of the adrenal glands.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3325-3331
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume35
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1994

Fingerprint

Adrenalectomy
Timolol
Aqueous Humor
Placebos
Circadian Rhythm
Adrenergic Antagonists
Ophthalmic Solutions
Adrenal Glands
Fluorescein
Intraocular Pressure
Epinephrine

Keywords

  • adrenal gland
  • adrenalectomy
  • aqueous humor
  • circadian rhythm
  • human eye

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Aqueous flow in humans after adrenalectomy. / Maus, T. L.; Young, William Francis; Brubaker, R. F.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 35, No. 8, 1994, p. 3325-3331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Maus, TL, Young, WF & Brubaker, RF 1994, 'Aqueous flow in humans after adrenalectomy', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 3325-3331.
Maus, T. L. ; Young, William Francis ; Brubaker, R. F. / Aqueous flow in humans after adrenalectomy. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 1994 ; Vol. 35, No. 8. pp. 3325-3331.
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abstract = "Purpose. This study was performed to determine if the circadian rhythm of aqueous humor formation and the aqueous humor suppressing effect of β- adrenergic antagonists can occur in the absence of adrenally derived epinephrine. Methods. Twenty-one human subjects who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy were studied during a 28-hour period. The study was divided into four time periods as follows: morning 1 (8 AM to noon), afternoon (noon to 4 PM), night (midnight to 6 AM), and morning 2 (8 AM to noon). At 6:45 AM before the morning 2 measurements, one drop of 0.5{\%} timolol was applied to one eye and one drop of placebo (artificial tears) was applied to the other eye. Topical fluorescein and a scanning fluorophotometer were used to measure the rate of aqueous humor flow. Twenty normal controls were studied in a similar fashion but did not undergo the morning 2 measurement. Results. In the subjects lacking adrenals, the daytime rates of aqueous flow were 3.17 ± 0.78 μl/min (mean ± SD) and 3.16 ± 0.67 μl/min for the morning 1 and afternoon periods, respectively. The rates in daytime periods were not significantly different from each other (P = 0.699). The rate of aqueous flow for the night period was 1.37 ± 0.37 μl/min, a 57{\%} reduction from both morning 1 and afternoon periods (P < 0.001). The morning, afternoon, and night rates of flow in normal controls were not significantly different from the rates in subjects lacking adrenals. For the morning 2 period, the aqueous flow was 2.74 ± 0.54 μl/min for the placebo-treated eye and 1.77 ± 0.38 μl/min for the timolol-treated eye. The rate of aqueous flow was reduced (35{\%}) in the timolol-treated eye when compared to the fellow placebo-treated eye (P < 0.001). The timolol-treated eye also showed a 26{\%} reduction in intraocular pressure when compared to the fellow placebo-treated eye (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The study demonstrates that both the circadian rhythm of aqueous flow and the daytime response to timolol persist in the absence of the adrenal glands.",
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AB - Purpose. This study was performed to determine if the circadian rhythm of aqueous humor formation and the aqueous humor suppressing effect of β- adrenergic antagonists can occur in the absence of adrenally derived epinephrine. Methods. Twenty-one human subjects who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy were studied during a 28-hour period. The study was divided into four time periods as follows: morning 1 (8 AM to noon), afternoon (noon to 4 PM), night (midnight to 6 AM), and morning 2 (8 AM to noon). At 6:45 AM before the morning 2 measurements, one drop of 0.5% timolol was applied to one eye and one drop of placebo (artificial tears) was applied to the other eye. Topical fluorescein and a scanning fluorophotometer were used to measure the rate of aqueous humor flow. Twenty normal controls were studied in a similar fashion but did not undergo the morning 2 measurement. Results. In the subjects lacking adrenals, the daytime rates of aqueous flow were 3.17 ± 0.78 μl/min (mean ± SD) and 3.16 ± 0.67 μl/min for the morning 1 and afternoon periods, respectively. The rates in daytime periods were not significantly different from each other (P = 0.699). The rate of aqueous flow for the night period was 1.37 ± 0.37 μl/min, a 57% reduction from both morning 1 and afternoon periods (P < 0.001). The morning, afternoon, and night rates of flow in normal controls were not significantly different from the rates in subjects lacking adrenals. For the morning 2 period, the aqueous flow was 2.74 ± 0.54 μl/min for the placebo-treated eye and 1.77 ± 0.38 μl/min for the timolol-treated eye. The rate of aqueous flow was reduced (35%) in the timolol-treated eye when compared to the fellow placebo-treated eye (P < 0.001). The timolol-treated eye also showed a 26% reduction in intraocular pressure when compared to the fellow placebo-treated eye (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The study demonstrates that both the circadian rhythm of aqueous flow and the daytime response to timolol persist in the absence of the adrenal glands.

KW - adrenal gland

KW - adrenalectomy

KW - aqueous humor

KW - circadian rhythm

KW - human eye

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