Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Pathogenesis and emerging therapies

R. C. Smallridge, J. A. Copland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

226 Scopus citations

Abstract

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ranges from 1.3 to 9.8% of all thyroid cancers globally. Mutations, amplifications, activation of oncogenes and silencing of tumour suppressor genes contribute to its aggressive behaviour, and recent studies (e.g. microarrays, microRNAs) have provided further insights into its complex molecular dysregulation. Preclinical studies have identified numerous proteins over- or underexpressed that affect critical cellular processes, including transcription, signalling, mitosis, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and adhesion, and a variety of agents that effectively inhibit these processes and tumour growth. In clinical studies of 1771 patients, 64% were women, the median survival was 5 months, and 1-year survival was 20%. The variables associated with survival in some series included age, tumour size, extent of surgery, higher dose radiotherapy, absence of distant metastases at presentation, co-existence of differentiated thyroid cancer and multimodality therapy. However, considerable bias exists in these non-randomised studies. Although more aggressive radiotherapy has reduced locoregional recurrences, the median overall survival has not improved in over 50 years. Newer systemic therapies are being tried, and more effective combinations are needed to improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)486-497
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Oncology
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010

Keywords

  • Anaplastic
  • Chemotherapy
  • Microarray
  • Mutations
  • Radiotherapy
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: Pathogenesis and emerging therapies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this