Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Physiology and new management strategies

A. B. Weinacker, L. T. Vaszar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

77 Scopus citations

Abstract

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been recognized for more than three decades as a cause of respiratory failure in patients with a variety of illnesses. Clinically, it is characterized by pulmonary edema, refractory hypoxemia, diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and altered lung compliance. Pathologically, it is distinguished by infiltration of the lungs with inflammatory cells, interstitial and alveolar edema, hyaline membrane formation, and ultimately fibrosis. Although we have learned much about the pathophysiology of this inflammatory syndrome since its earliest descriptions, ARDS continues to claim the lives of 40%-70% of its victims. Many treatment strategies have been used to prevent or treat ARDS, but thus far the most encouraging strategy to prevent lung injury and improve survival is mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-237
Number of pages17
JournalAnnual Review of Medicine
Volume52
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 17 2001

Keywords

  • Acute respiratory failure
  • Corticosteroids
  • Inverse ratio ventilation
  • Lung-protective ventilation
  • Nitric oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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