OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of intravenous adenosine on clinical outcomes and infarct size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing reperfusion therapy. BACKGROUND: Previous small studies suggest that adenosine may reduce the size of an evolving infarction. METHODS: Patients (n = 2,118) with evolving anterior STEMI receiving thrombolysis or primary angioplasty were randomized to a 3-h infusion of either adenosine 50 or 70 μg/kg/min or of placebo. The primary end point was new congestive heart failure (CHF) beginning >24 h after randomization, or the first re-hospitalization for CHF, or death from any cause within six months. Infarct size was measured in a subset of 243 patients by technetium-99m sestamibi tomography. RESULTS: There was no difference in the primary end point between placebo (17.9%) and either the pooled adenosine dose groups (16.3%) or, separately, the 50-μg/kg/min dose and 70-μg/kg/min groups (16.5% vs. 16.1%, respectively, p = 0.43). The pooled adenosine group trended toward a smaller median infarct size compared with the placebo group, 17% versus 27% (p = 0.074). A dose-response relationship with final median infarct size was seen: 11% at the high dose (p = 0.023 vs. placebo) and 23% at the low dose (p = NS vs. placebo). Infarct size and occurrence of a primary end point were significantly related (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing reperfusion therapy were not significantly improved with adenosine, although infarct size was reduced with the 70-μg/kg/min adenosine infusion, a finding that correlated with fewer adverse clinical events. A larger study limited to the 70-μg/kg/min dose is, therefore, warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine