A hexanucleotide repeat expansion GGGGCC in the non-coding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Toxic dipeptide repeats (DPRs) are synthesized from GGGGCC via repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. Here, we develop C. elegans models that express, either ubiquitously or exclusively in neurons, 75 GGGGCC repeats flanked by intronic C9orf72 sequence. The worms generate DPRs (poly-glycine-alanine [poly-GA], poly-glycine-proline [poly-GP]) and poly-glycine-arginine [poly-GR]), display neurodegeneration, and exhibit locomotor and lifespan defects. Mutation of a non-canonical translation-initiating codon (CUG) upstream of the repeats selectively reduces poly-GA steady-state levels and ameliorates disease, suggesting poly-GA is pathogenic. Importantly, loss-of-function mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2D (eif-2D/eIF2D) reduce poly-GA and poly-GP levels, and increase lifespan in both C. elegans models. Our in vitro studies in mammalian cells yield similar results. Here, we show a conserved role for eif-2D/eIF2D in DPR expression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)