Biomedical Statistics and Informatics

Research Output 2007 2019

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2013
3 Citations (Scopus)

Novel SOD1 mutation discovered in atypical ALS by whole exome sequencing

Klein, C. J., Wu, Y., Duan, X., Middha, S., Dawson, B. D., Kocher, J-P. & Dyck, P. J., 2013, In : Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 84, 8, p. 943-944 2 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mutation
Sequencing
14 Citations (Scopus)

Overall survival analysis of adjuvant radiation versus observation in stage i testicular seminoma: A surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) analysis

Jones, G., Arthurs, B., Kaya, H., Macdonald, K., Qin, R., Fairbanks, R. K., Lamoreaux, W. T., Jawed, I., Tward, J. D., Martincic, D., Shivnani, A. T. & Lee, C. M., Oct 2013, In : American Journal of Clinical Oncology: Cancer Clinical Trials. 36, 5, p. 500-504 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Seminoma
Survival Analysis
Epidemiology
Radiotherapy
Observation
2 Citations (Scopus)

Pharmacogenetics- and pharmacogenomics-based rational clinical trial designs in oncology

Qin, R. & Kohli, M., Nov 2013, In : Personalized Medicine. 10, 8, p. 859-869 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pharmacogenetics
Clinical Trials
Neoplasms
Molecular Evolution
Drug Interactions
8 Citations (Scopus)

Phase 1 study of sorafenib in combination with bortezomib in patients with advanced malignancies

Kumar, S. K., Jett, J., Marks, R. S., Richardson, R., Quevedo, F., Moynihan, T., Croghan, G., Markovic, S. N., Bible, K. C., Qin, R., Tan, A., Molina, J. R., Kaufmann, S. H., Erlichman, C. & Adjei, A., Oct 2013, In : Investigational New Drugs. 31, 5, p. 1201-1206 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Neoplasms
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Proteasome Inhibitors
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Adrenal Glands
7 Citations (Scopus)

Phase i study of tanespimycin in combination with bortezomib in patients with advanced solid malignancies

Schenk, E., Wahner Hendrickson, A. E., Northfelt, D. W., Toft, D. O., Ames, M. M., Menefee, M., Satele, D., Qin, R. & Erlichman, C., Oct 2013, In : Investigational New Drugs. 31, 5, p. 1251-1256 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

tanespimycin
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Neoplasms
Hyponatremia
Atrioventricular Block
10 Citations (Scopus)

Population-based study on association between birth weight and risk of asthma: A propensity score approach

Yang, H. J., Qin, R., Katusic, S. K. & Juhn, Y. J., Jan 2013, In : Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 110, 1, p. 18-23 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Propensity Score
Birth Weight
Asthma
Population
Low Birth Weight Infant
63 Citations (Scopus)

Posttranscriptional regulation of per1 underlies the oncogenic function of IREα

Pluquet, O., Dejeans, N., Bouchecareilh, M., Lhomond, S., Pineau, R., Higa, A., Delugin, M., Combe, C., Loriot, S., Cubel, G., Dugot-Senant, N., Vital, A., Loiseau, H., Gosline, S. J. C., Taouji, S., Hallett, M., Sarkaria, J. N., Anderson, K., Wu, W., Rodriguez, F. J. & 4 others, Rosenbaum, J., Saltel, F., Fernandez-Zapico, M. E. & Chevet, E., Aug 1 2013, In : Cancer Research. 73, 15, p. 4732-4743 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Unfolded Protein Response
Endoribonucleases
Circadian Clocks
Messenger RNA
Carcinogenesis
12 Citations (Scopus)

Quality assessment metrics for whole genome gene expression profiling of paraffin embedded samples

Mahoney, D. W., Therneau, T. M., Anderson, S. K., Jen, J., Kocher, J-P., Reinholz, M. M., Perez, E. A. & Eckel-Passow, J. E., 2013, In : BMC Research Notes. 6, 1, 33.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gene Expression Profiling
Gene expression
Paraffin
Formaldehyde
Genes
13 Citations (Scopus)

Semantator: Semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data

Tao, C., Song, D., Sharma, D. & Chute, C. G., Oct 2013, In : Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 46, 5, p. 882-893 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Semantics
Semantic Web
Biological Ontologies
Query languages
Information Storage and Retrieval
25 Citations (Scopus)

Softsearch: Integration of multiple sequence features to identify breakpoints of structural variations

Hart, S., Sarangi, V., Moore, R., Baheti, S., Bhavsar, J. D., Couch, F. J. & Kocher, J-P., Dec 16 2013, In : PLoS One. 8, 12, e83356.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

BRCA2 Gene
Exome
Workflow
DNA Sequence Analysis
sequence analysis
12 Citations (Scopus)

Terminology representation guidelines for biomedical ontologies in the semantic web notations

Tao, C., Pathak, J., Solbrig, H. R., Wei, W. Q. & Chute, C. G., Feb 2013, In : Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 46, 1, p. 128-138 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Biological Ontologies
Terminology
Semantic Web
Semantics
Ontology
2012
4 Citations (Scopus)

A 2012 Workshop: Vaccine and Drug Ontology in the Study of Mechanism and Effect (VDOSME 2012)

He, Y., Toldo, L., Burns, G., Tao, C. & Abernethy, D. R., Dec 18 2012, In : Journal of Biomedical Semantics. 3, 1, 12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vaccines
Ontology
Education
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Biological Ontologies
43 Citations (Scopus)

A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of flaxseed for the treatment of hot flashes: North central cancer treatment group N08C7

Pruthi, S., Qin, R., Terstreip, S. A., Liu, H., Loprinzi, C. L., Shah, T. R. C., Tucker, K. F., Dakhil, S. R., Bury, M. J., Carolla, R. L., Steen, P. D., Vuky, J. & Barton, D. L., Jan 2012, In : Menopause. 19, 1, p. 48-53 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hot Flashes
Flax
Placebos
Lignans
Neoplasms
10 Citations (Scopus)

A pilot study of long-acting octreotide for symptomatic malignant ascites

Jatoi, A., Nieva, J. J., Qin, R., Loprinzi, C. L., Wos, E. J., Novotny, P. J., Moore, D. F., Mowat, R. B., Bechar, N., Pajon, E. R. & Hartmann, L. C., Jul 2012, In : Oncology (Switzerland). 82, 6, p. 315-320 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Octreotide
Ascites
Paracentesis
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Proxy
35 Citations (Scopus)

Association of an increased frequency of CD14 +HLA-DR lo/neg monocytes with decreased time to progression in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)

Gustafson, M., Abraham, R. S., Lin, Y., Wu, W., Gastineau, D. A., Zent, C. S. & Dietz, A. B., Mar 2012, In : British Journal of Haematology. 156, 5, p. 674-676 3 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

CD14 Antigens
Immunophenotyping
HLA-DR Antigens
Neoplasm Antigens
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
11 Citations (Scopus)

Biomarker-based targeting of the androgen-androgen receptor axis in advanced prostate cancer

Kohli, M., Qin, R., Jimenez, R. E. & Dehm, S. M., 2012, In : Advances in Urology. 781459.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Androgen Receptors
Androgens
Prostatic Neoplasms
Biomarkers
Pharmacogenetics
111 Citations (Scopus)

Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project

Rea, S., Pathak, J., Savova, G., Oniki, T. A., Westberg, L., Beebe, C. E., Tao, C., Parker, C. G., Haug, P. J., Huff, S. M. & Chute, C. G., Aug 2012, In : Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 45, 4, p. 763-771 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Electronic Health Records
Health
Informatics
Research
Epidemiological Monitoring
37 Citations (Scopus)

Concordance of changes in metabolic pathways based on plasma metabolomics and skeletal muscle transcriptomics in type 1 diabetes

Dutta, T., Chai, H. S., Ward, L. E., Ghosh, A., Persson, X. M. T., Ford, G. C., Kudva, Y. C., Sun, Z. D., Asmann, Y., Kocher, J-P. & Nair, K. S., May 2012, In : Diabetes. 61, 5, p. 1004-1016 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Metabolomics
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Skeletal Muscle
Insulin
31 Citations (Scopus)

Deep sequence analysis of non-small cell lung cancer: Integrated analysis of gene expression, alternative splicing, and single nucleotide variations in lung adenocarcinomas with and without oncogenic KRAS mutations

Kalari, K. R., Rossell, D., Necela, B. M., Asmann, Y., Nair, A., Baheti, S., Kachergus, J. M., Younkin, C. S., Baker, T., Carr, J. M., Tang, X., Walsh, M. P., Chai, H. S., Sun, Z. D., Hart, S., Leontovich, A. A., Hossain, A., Kocher, J-P., Perez, E. A., Reisman, D. N. & 2 others, Fields, A. P. & Thompson, E. A., 2012, In : Frontiers in Oncology. 2, FEB, 00012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Alternative Splicing
Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
Sequence Analysis
Nucleotides
Gene Expression
62 Citations (Scopus)

Identifying new therapeutic targets via modulation of protein corona formation by engineered nanoparticles

Arvizo, R. R., Giri, K., Moyano, D., Miranda, O. R., Madden, B., Mc Cormick, D. J., Bhattacharya, R., Rotello, V. M., Kocher, J-P. & Mukherjee, P., Mar 19 2012, In : PLoS One. 7, 3, e33650.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

nanoparticles
Nanoparticles
Modulation
hepatoma
therapeutics
11 Citations (Scopus)

Mass homozygotes accumulation in the NCI-60 cancer cell lines as compared to HapMap trios, and relation to fragile site location

Ruan, X., Kocher, J-P., Pommier, Y., Liu, H. D. & Reinhold, W. C., Feb 9 2012, In : PLoS One. 7, 2, e31628.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

HapMap Project
Homozygote
homozygosity
Cells
cell lines

MIXHS'12 Foreword: Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems

Tao, C. & Bouamrane, M. M., 2012, In : Unknown Journal.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Interoperability
60 Citations (Scopus)

Number of lymph nodes evaluated: Prognostic value in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

Huebner, M., Kendrick, M., Reid-Lombardo, K. M., Que, F., Therneau, T. M., Qin, R., Donohue, J., Nagorney, D., Farnell, M. & Sarr, M., May 2012, In : Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 16, 5, p. 920-926 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adenocarcinoma
Lymph Nodes
Survival
Pancreatic Neoplasms
Pancreatectomy
9 Citations (Scopus)

Ontology-based time information representation of vaccine adverse events in VAERS for temporal analysis

Tao, C., He, Y., Yang, H., Poland, G. A. & Chute, C. G., Dec 20 2012, In : Journal of Biomedical Semantics. 3, 1, 13.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vaccines
Ontology
Semantics
Information Storage and Retrieval
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
82 Citations (Scopus)

P16-Cdk4-Rb axis controls sensitivity to a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor PD0332991 in glioblastoma xenograft cells

Cen, L., Carlson, B. L., Schroeder, M. A., Ostrem, J. L., Kitange, G. J., Mladek, A. C., Fink, S. R., Decker, P. A., Wu, W., Kim, J. S., Waldman, T., Jenkins, R. B. & Sarkaria, J. N., Jul 2012, In : Neuro-Oncology. 14, 7, p. 870-881 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
Glioblastoma
Heterografts
Cell Proliferation
Survival
34 Citations (Scopus)

Phase 2 trial design in neuro-oncology revisited: A report from the RANO group

Galanis, E., Wu, W., Cloughesy, T., Lamborn, K., Mann, B., Wen, P. Y., Reardon, D. A., Wick, W., Macdonald, D., Armstrong, T. S., Weller, M., Vogelbaum, M., Colman, H., Sargent, D. J., van den Bent, M. J., Gilbert, M. & Chang, S., May 2012, In : The Lancet Oncology. 13, 5

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

temozolomide
Brain Neoplasms
Glioma
Drug Combinations
Therapeutics
15 Citations (Scopus)

Phase i study of temsirolimus in combination with EKB-569 in patients with advanced solid tumors

Bryce, A. H., Rao, R., Sarkaria, J. N., Reid, J. M., Qi, Y., Qin, R., James, C. D., Jenkins, R. B., Boni, J., Erlichman, C. & Haluska, P., Oct 2012, In : Investigational New Drugs. 30, 5, p. 1934-1941 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Maximum Tolerated Dose
Pharmacokinetics
Nausea
Diarrhea
Neoplasms
46 Citations (Scopus)

The relationship between numbness, tingling, and shooting/burning pain in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) as measured by the EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 instrument, N06CA

Wolf, S. L., Barton, D. L., Qin, R., Wos, E. J., Sloan, J. A., Liu, H., Aaronson, N. K., Satele, D. V., Mattar, B. I., Green, N. B. & Loprinzi, C. L., Mar 2012, In : Supportive Care in Cancer. 20, 3, p. 625-632 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hypesthesia
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Drug Therapy
Pain
Hand

Time-Related Patient Data Retrieval for the Case Studies from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network

Zhu, Q., Tao, C., Ding, Y. & Chute, C. G., 2012, (Accepted/In press) In : Journal of Medical Systems. p. 1-6 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Information Storage and Retrieval
Knowledge representation
Ontology
Query languages
Spreadsheets
41 Citations (Scopus)

Treat: A bioinformatics tool for variant annotations and visualizations in targeted and exome sequencing data

Asmann, Y., Middha, S., Hossain, A., Baheti, S., Li, Y., Chai, H. S., Sun, Z. D., Duffy, P. H., Hadad, A. A., Nair, A., Liu, X., Zhang, Y., Klee, E. W., Kalari, K. R. & Kocher, J-P., Jan 2012, In : Bioinformatics. 28, 2, p. 277-278 2 p., btr612.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Exome
Bioinformatics
Computational Biology
Sequencing
Annotation
47 Citations (Scopus)

Unified medical Language System term occurrences in clinical notes: A large-scale corpus analysis

Wu, S. T., Liu, H. D., Li, D., Tao, C., Musen, M. A., Chute, C. G. & Shah, N. H., Jun 2012, In : Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 19, E1

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Unified Medical Language System
Semantics
Terminology
Vocabulary
Information Storage and Retrieval
2011
119 Citations (Scopus)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA

Barton, D. L., Wos, E. J., Qin, R., Mattar, B. I., Green, N. B., Lanier, K. S., Bearden, J. D., Kugler, J. W., Hoff, K. L., Reddy, P. S., Rowland, K. M., Riepl, M., Christensen, B. & Loprinzi, C. L., Jun 2011, In : Supportive Care in Cancer. 19, 6, p. 833-841 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Placebos
Drug Therapy
Therapeutics
Gels
65 Citations (Scopus)

A novel bioinformatics pipeline for identification and characterization of fusion transcripts in breast cancer and normal cell lines

Asmann, Y., Hossain, A., Necela, B. M., Middha, S., Kalari, K. R., Sun, Z. D., Chai, H. S., Williamson, D. W., Radisky, D. C., Schroth, G. P., Kocher, J-P., Perez, E. A. & Thompson, E. A., Aug 2011, In : Nucleic Acids Research. 39, 15

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Computational Biology
Breast Neoplasms
Cell Line
Protein Isoforms
Proteins
15 Citations (Scopus)

Antiemetics for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting occurring despite prophylactic antiemetic therapy

Jones, J. M., Qin, R., Bardia, A., Linquist, B., Wolf, S. & Loprinzi, C. L., Jul 1 2011, In : Journal of Palliative Medicine. 14, 7, p. 810-814 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Antiemetics
Nausea
Vomiting
Drug Therapy
Therapeutics
70 Citations (Scopus)

Batch effect correction for genome-wide methylation data with Illumina Infinium platform

Sun, Z. D., Chai, H., Wu, Y., White, W. M., Donkena, K. V., Klein, C. J., Garovic, V. D., Therneau, T. M. & Kocher, J-P., 2011, In : BMC Medical Genomics. 4, 84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Methylation
Genome
Datasets
Artifacts
Genes
56 Citations (Scopus)

Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients

Sohn, S., Kocher, J-P., Chute, C. G. & Savova, G. K., Dec 2011, In : Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 18, SUPPL. 1, p. 144-149 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Psychiatry
Psychology
Hypersensitivity
Physicians
16 Citations (Scopus)

Incorporation of biomarker assessment in novel clinical trial designs: Personalizing brain tumor treatments

Galanis, E., Wu, W., Sarkaria, J. N., Chang, S. M., Colman, H., Sargent, D. & Reardon, D. A., Feb 2011, In : Current Oncology Reports. 13, 1, p. 42-49 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brain Neoplasms
Biomarkers
Clinical Trials
Molecular Biology
Therapeutics
31 Citations (Scopus)
Primary Myelofibrosis
Thalidomide
Prednisone
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
40 Citations (Scopus)

Mayo genome consortia: A genotype-phenotype resource for genome-wide association studies with an application to the analysis of circulating bilirubin levels

Bielinski, S. J., Chai, H. S., Pathak, J., Talwalkar, J. A., Limburg, P. J., Gullerud, R. E., Sicotte, H., Klee, E. W., Ross, J. L., Kocher, J-P., Kullo, I. J., Heit, J. A., Petersen, G. M., De Andrade, M. & Chute, C. G., 2011, In : Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 86, 7, p. 606-614 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Genome-Wide Association Study
Bilirubin
Genotype
Genome
Electronic Health Records

MIXHS'11 foreword: Managing interoperability and compleXity in health systems

Bouamrane, M. M. & Tao, C., 2011, In : Unknown Journal.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Interoperability
64 Citations (Scopus)

Multilevel parallelization of autodock 4.2

Norgan, A. P., Coffman, P. K., Kocher, J-P., Katzmann, D. J. & Sosa, C. P., 2011, In : Journal of Cheminformatics. 3, 1, 12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

workload
Screening
output
screening
grids
17 Citations (Scopus)

Nonestrogenic management of hot flashes

Loprinzi, C. L., Barton, D. L. & Qin, R., Oct 11 2011, In : Journal of Clinical Oncology. 29, 29, p. 3842-3846 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cyclohexanols
Hot Flashes
Clonidine
Breast Neoplasms
54 Citations (Scopus)
temozolomide
Glioblastoma
radiation therapy
Radiotherapy
cancer
25 Citations (Scopus)

Phase 0 clinical chemoprevention trial of the Akt inhibitor SR13668

Reid, J. M., Walden, C. A., Qin, R., Allen Ziegler, K. L., Haslam, J. L., Rajewski, R. A., Warndahl, R., Fitting, C. L., Boring, D., Szabo, E., Crowell, J., Perloff, M., Jong, L., Bauer, B. A., Mandrekar, S. J., Ames, M. M. & Limburg, P. J., Mar 2011, In : Cancer Prevention Research. 4, 3, p. 347-353 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chemoprevention
Clinical Trials
Biological Availability
Area Under Curve
Pharmacokinetics
83 Citations (Scopus)

Phase II evaluation of gefitinib in patients with newly diagnosed grade 4 astrocytoma: Mayo/north central cancer treatment group study n0074

Uhm, J. H., Ballman, K. V., Wu, W., Giannini, C., Krauss, J. C., Buckner, J. C., James, C. D., Scheithauer, B. W., Behrens, R. J., Flynn, P. J., Schaefer, P. L., Dakhill, S. R. & Jaeckle, K. A., Jun 1 2011, In : International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics. 80, 2, p. 347-353 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Astrocytoma
Glioblastoma
grade
cancer
evaluation
44 Citations (Scopus)

Phase II study of subcutaneous octreotide in adults with recurrent or progressive meningioma and meningeal hemangiopericytoma

Johnson, D. R., Kimmel, D. W., Burch, P. A., Cascino, T. L., Giannini, C., Wu, W. & Buckner, J. C., May 2011, In : Neuro-Oncology. 13, 5, p. 530-535 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hemangiopericytoma
Octreotide
Meningioma
Somatostatin Receptors
Therapeutics
29 Citations (Scopus)

Phase I study of 17-allylamino-17 demethoxygeldanamycin, gemcitabine and/or cisplatin in patients with refractory solid tumors

Hubbard, J. M., Erlichman, C., Toft, D. O., Qin, R., Stensgard, B. A., Felten, S., Ten Eyck, C., Batzel, G., Ivy, S. P. & Haluska, P., Jun 2011, In : Investigational New Drugs. 29, 3, p. 473-480 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

tanespimycin
gemcitabine
Cisplatin
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Neoplasms

Risk factors for splenic injury during colectomy: A matched case-control study

Wang, J. K., Holubar, S. D., Wolff, B. G., Follestad, B., O'Byrne, M. M. & Qin, R., Nov 2011, In : Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 54, 11

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Colectomy
Case-Control Studies
Wounds and Injuries
22 Citations (Scopus)

Risk factors for splenic injury during colectomy: A matched case-control study

Wang, J. K., Holubar, S. D., Wolff, B. G., Follestad, B., O'Byrne, M. M. & Qin, R., May 2011, In : World Journal of Surgery. 35, 5, p. 1123-1129 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Colectomy
Case-Control Studies
Wounds and Injuries
Transverse Colon
Comorbidity
12 Citations (Scopus)

SNPPicker: High quality tag SNP selection across multiple populations

Sicotte, H., Rider, D. N., Poland, G. A., Dhiman, N. & Kocher, J-P., May 2 2011, In : BMC Bioinformatics. 12, 129.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bins
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Assays
Tagging
Population