• 49873 Citations
  • 114 Scopus h-Index
1976 …2019
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Research Output 1976 2019

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Article
2013
43 Citations (Scopus)

Type A aortic dissection in patients with bicuspid aortic valves: Clinical and pathological comparison with tricuspid aortic valves

Eleid, M., Forde, I., Edwards, W. D., Maleszewski, J., Suri, R. M., Schaff, H. V., Sarano, M. E. & Michelena, H. I., Nov 2013, In : Heart. 99, 22, p. 1668-1674 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tricuspid Valve
Aortic Valve
Dissection
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Dilatation
8 Citations (Scopus)

Valvular heart disease in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

Najib, M. Q., Schaff, H. V., Ganji, J., Lee, H. R., Click, R. L., Miller, D. C. & Chaliki, H. P., Mar 2013, In : Journal of Cardiac Surgery. 28, 2, p. 139-143 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Heart Valve Diseases
Bone Fractures
Connective Tissue
11 Citations (Scopus)

Variation in warfarin thromboprophylaxis after mitral valve repair: Does equipoise exist and is a randomized trial warranted?

Suri, R. M., Thourani, V. H., He, X., Brennan, J. M., O'Brien, S. M., Rankin, J. S., Schaff, H. V. & Gammie, J. S., Jun 2013, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 95, 6, p. 1991-1999 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Warfarin
Mitral Valve
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Length of Stay
2012
10 Citations (Scopus)

Amiodarone versus lidocaine and placebo for the prevention of ventricular fibrillation after aortic crossclamping: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Mauermann, W. J., Pulido, J. N., Barbara, D. W., Abel, M. D., Li, Z., Meade, L. A., Schaff, H. V. & White, R. D., 2012, In : The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 144, 5, p. 1229-1234 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amiodarone
Ventricular Fibrillation
Lidocaine
Placebos
Shock
55 Citations (Scopus)

Aortic valve stenosis in community medical practice: Determinants of outcome and implications for aortic valve replacement

Malouf, J., Le Tourneau, T., Pellikka, P., Sundt, T. M., Scott, C., Schaff, H. V. & Sarano, M. E., Dec 2012, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 144, 6, p. 1421-1427 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Valve Stenosis
Aortic Valve
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Heart Failure
23 Citations (Scopus)

A prospective, randomized comparison of 3 contemporary bioprosthetic aortic valves: Should hemodynamic performance influence device selection?

Suri, R. M., Michelena, H. I., Burkhart, H. M., Greason, K. L., Daly, R. C., Dearani, J. A., Park, S. J., Joyce, L. D., Stulak, J. M., Sundt, T. M., Li, Z. & Schaff, H. V., Dec 2012, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 144, 6, p. 1387-1398 12 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Valve
Hemodynamics
Equipment and Supplies
Prostheses and Implants
Echocardiography
22 Citations (Scopus)

Asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with severe aortic stenosis: Characteristics and outcomes

Henkel, D. M., Malouf, J. F., Connolly, H. M., Michelena, H. I., Sarano, M. E., Schaff, H. V., Scott, C. G. & Pellikka, P., Dec 4 2012, In : Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 60, 22, p. 2325-2329 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Valve Stenosis
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Aortic Valve
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

Bioprosthetic tricuspid valve stenosis in end-stage renal failure

Mao, M., Madhavan, M., Blauwet, L., Schaff, H. V. & Qian, Q., Mar 2012, In : American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 343, 3, p. 252-254 3 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tricuspid Valve Stenosis
Hyperparathyroidism
Chronic Kidney Failure
Renal Insufficiency
Tricuspid Valve
36 Citations (Scopus)

Completion pericardiectomy for recurrent constrictive pericarditis: Importance of timing of recurrence on late clinical outcome of operation

Cho, Y. H., Schaff, H. V., Dearani, J. A., Daly, R. C., Park, S. J., Li, Z. & Oh, J. K., Apr 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 4, p. 1236-1240 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pericardiectomy
Constrictive Pericarditis
Recurrence
Reoperation
Constriction
18 Citations (Scopus)

Coronary artery disease in adult congenital heart disease: Outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting

Stulak, J. M., Dearani, J. A., Burkhart, H. M., Ammash, N. M., Phillips, S. D. & Schaff, H. V., Jan 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 1, p. 116-123 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Coronary Artery Bypass
Coronary Artery Disease
Heart Diseases
Transplants
Atrial Heart Septal Defects
2 Citations (Scopus)

Does metabolic syndrome influence bioprosthetic mitral valve degeneration and reoperation rate?

Meyer, S. R., Suri, R. M., Wright, R. S., Dearani, J. A., Orszulak, T. A., Daly, R. C., Burkhart, H. M., Park, S. J. & Schaff, H. V., Mar 2012, In : Journal of Cardiac Surgery. 27, 2, p. 146-151 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mitral Valve
Reoperation
Survival
Prostheses and Implants
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
16 Citations (Scopus)

Do pericardial bioprostheses improve outcome of elderly patients undergoing aortic valve replacement?

Said, S. M., Ashikhmina, E., Greason, K. L., Suri, R. M., Park, S. J., Daly, R. C., Burkhart, H. M., Dearani, J. A., Sundt, T. M. & Schaff, H. V., Jun 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 6, p. 1868-1875 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bioprosthesis
Aortic Valve
Swine
Survival
Prostheses and Implants
15 Citations (Scopus)

Double-orifice left atrioventricular valve in patients with atrioventricular septal defects: Surgical strategies and outcome

Sharma, V., Burkhart, H. M., Schaff, H. V., Cabalka, A. K., Grogan, M. & Dearani, J. A., Jun 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 6, p. 2017-2021 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Atrioventricular Septal Defect
Mitral Valve
Mitral Valve Stenosis
Reoperation
61 Citations (Scopus)

Early thrombosis risk in patients with biologic valves in the aortic position

Brown, M. L., Park, S. J., Sundt, T. M. & Schaff, H. V., Jul 2012, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 144, 1, p. 108-111 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Valve
Thrombosis
Reoperation
Confidence Intervals
Incidence
59 Citations (Scopus)

Expanding the indications for septal myectomy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Results of operation in patients with latent obstruction

Schaff, H. V., Dearani, J. A., Ommen, S. R., Sorajja, P. & Nishimura, R. A., Feb 2012, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 143, 2, p. 303-309 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction
Survival
Amyl Nitrite
Valsalva Maneuver
1 Citation (Scopus)

Extent of pericardial resection for constrictive pericardiectomy

Cho, Y. H. & Schaff, H. V., Dec 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 94, 6, p. 2180 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tuberculous Pericarditis
Pericardiectomy
Constrictive Pericarditis
Heart Failure
2 Citations (Scopus)

Extra-anatomic Bypass Graft for Recurrent Aortic Arch Obstruction

Said, S. M., Dearani, J. A., Burkhart, H. M. & Schaff, H. V., 2012, In : Operative Techniques in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 17, 4, p. 261-270 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thoracic Aorta
Transplants
18 Citations (Scopus)

Late outcomes for surgical repair of supravalvar aortic stenosis

Deo, S. V., Burkhart, H. M., Schaff, H. V., Li, Z., Stensrud, P. E., Olson, T. M., Connolly, H. M. & Dearani, J. A., Sep 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 94, 3, p. 854-859 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis
Reoperation
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Williams Syndrome
Aortic Valve
16 Citations (Scopus)

Management of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy: A case series and review of the literature

John, A. S., Connolly, H. M., Schaff, H. V. & Klarich, K., Mar 8 2012, In : International Journal of Cardiology. 155, 2, p. 177-180 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Myxoma
Pregnancy
Heart Neoplasms
Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Fetus
1 Citation (Scopus)

Mitral valve repair is durable in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Stulak, J. M., Suri, R. M., Matteson, E. L., Dearani, J. A., Connolly, H. M. & Schaff, H. V., Aug 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 94, 2, p. 510-515 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mitral Valve
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Survival
Prolapse
34 Citations (Scopus)

MR imaging findings in 76 consecutive surgically proven cases of pericardial disease with CT and pathologic correlation

Young, P. M., Glockner, J., Williamson, E. E., Morris, M. F., Araoz, P. A., Julsrud, P. R., Schaff, H. V., Edwards, W. D., Oh, J. K. & Breen, J. F., Jun 2012, In : International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging. 28, 5, p. 1099-1109 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pericarditis
Constriction
Constrictive Pericarditis
Pericardiectomy
Neoplasms
135 Citations (Scopus)

Multiple arterial grafts improve late survival of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Analysis of 8622 patients with multivessel disease

Locker, C., Schaff, H. V., Dearani, J. A., Joyce, L. D., Park, S. J., Burkhart, H. M., Suri, R. M., Greason, K. L., Stulak, J. M., Li, Z. & Daly, R. C., Aug 21 2012, In : Circulation. 126, 9, p. 1023-1030 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mammary Arteries
Coronary Artery Bypass
Transplants
Survival
Radial Artery
18 Citations (Scopus)

Outcomes of surgical repair of double-chambered right ventricle

Said, S. M., Burkhart, H. M., Dearani, J. A., O'Leary, P. W., Ammash, N. M. & Schaff, H. V., Jan 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 1, p. 197-200 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heart Ventricles
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction
Low Cardiac Output
Ventricular Heart Septal Defects
Sudden Death
44 Citations (Scopus)

Pericardiectomy vs medical management in patients with relapsing pericarditis

Khandaker, M. H., Schaff, H. V., Greason, K. L., Anavekar, N. S., Espinosa, R. E., Hayes, S. N., Nishimura, R. A. & Oh, J. K., 2012, In : Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87, 11, p. 1062-1070 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pericardiectomy
Pericarditis
Recurrence
Cause of Death
Morbidity

Preface to the second edition

Machiraju, V. R., Schaff, H. V. & Svensson, L. G., Jun 1 2012, In : Unknown Journal. 9781461413264, p. v

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Quality of life after early mitral valve repair using conventional and robotic approaches

Suri, R. M., Antiel, R. M., Burkhart, H. M., Huebner, M., Li, Z., Eton, D. T., Topilsky, T., Sarano, M. E. & Schaff, H. V., Mar 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 3, p. 761-769 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Robotics
Mitral Valve
Quality of Life
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Guidelines
3 Citations (Scopus)

Resection of multiple recurrent cardiac myxomas in an adult man with Carney's complex

Salhab, K. F., Said, S. M. & Schaff, H. V., Jun 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 93, 6, p. 2071 1 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit
Local Neoplasm Recurrences
Multiple Primary Neoplasms
Heterozygote Detection
Sertoli Cell Tumor
35 Citations (Scopus)

Risk of recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding after aortic valve replacement in patients with Heyde syndrome

Thompson, J. L., Schaff, H. V., Dearani, J. A., Park, S. J., Sundt, T. M., Suri, R. M., Blackshear, J. L. & Daly, R. C., Jul 2012, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 144, 1, p. 112-116 5 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Valve
Hemorrhage
Angiodysplasia
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Duodenum
14 Citations (Scopus)

Single-patch, 2-patch, and caval division techniques for repair of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections: Does it matter?

Said, S. M., Burkhart, H. M., Schaff, H. V., Cetta, F., Phillips, S. D., Barnes, R. D., Li, Z. & Dearani, J. A., Apr 2012, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 143, 4, p. 896-901 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Venae Cavae
Lung
Reoperation
Sick Sinus Syndrome
Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
13 Citations (Scopus)

The surgical treatment of concomitant atrial arrhythmias during redo cardiac operations

Stulak, J. M., Dearani, J. A., Burkhart, H. M., Park, S. J., Suri, R. M. & Schaff, H. V., Dec 2012, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 94, 6, p. 1894-1900 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cardiac Arrhythmias
Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Diseases
Ebstein Anomaly
Therapeutics
30 Citations (Scopus)

Transaortic Extended Septal Myectomy for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Schaff, H. V. & Said, S. M., 2012, In : Operative Techniques in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 17, 4, p. 238-250 13 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
29 Citations (Scopus)

Transapical approach for apical myectomy and relief of midventricular obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Said, S. M., Schaff, H. V., Abel, M. D. & Dearani, J. A., Jul 2012, In : Journal of Cardiac Surgery. 27, 4, p. 443-448 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophy
Papillary Muscles
False Aneurysm
Heart Transplantation
2011
30 Citations (Scopus)

Ablation of atrial fibrillation: Comparison of catheter-based techniques and the cox-maze III operation

Stulak, J. M., Dearani, J. A., Sundt, T. M., Daly, R. C. & Schaff, H. V., Jun 2011, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 91, 6, p. 1882-1888 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Atrial Fibrillation
Catheter Ablation
Catheters
Warfarin
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
7 Citations (Scopus)

Adult presentation of interrupted aortic arch: Case presentation and a review of the medical literature

John, A. S., Schaff, H. V., Drew, T., Warnes, C. A. & Ammash, N., May 2011, In : Congenital Heart Disease. 6, 3, p. 269-275 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thoracic Aorta
Aortic Coarctation
64 Citations (Scopus)

Aortic valve replacement in the elderly: Determinants of late outcome

Ashikhmina, E. A., Schaff, H. V., Dearani, J. A., Sundt, T. M., Suri, R. M., Park, S. J., Burkhart, H. M., Li, Z. & Daly, R. C., Aug 30 2011, In : Circulation. 124, 9, p. 1070-1078 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Valve
Survival
Bioprosthesis
Comorbidity
Prosthesis Failure
9 Citations (Scopus)

A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of 3 regimens for sedation and analgesia after cardiac surgery

Oliver, W. C., Nuttall, G. A., Murari, T., Bauer, L. K., Johnsrud, K. H., Hall Long, K. J., Orszulak, T. A., Schaff, H. V., Hanson, A. C., Schroeder, D. R., Ereth, M. H. & Abel, M. D., Feb 2011, In : Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 25, 1, p. 110-119 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Analgesia
Thoracic Surgery
Fentanyl
Propofol
Midazolam
9 Citations (Scopus)

Ascending-Descending Posterior Pericardial Bypass of Complex Coarctation of the Aorta

Burkhart, H. M., Dearani, J. A., Connolly, H. M. & Schaff, H. V., 2011, In : Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual. 14, 1, p. 116-119 4 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Aortic Coarctation
Thoracic Aorta
Thoracic Surgery
19 Citations (Scopus)

Bulging subaortic septum: An important risk factor for systolic anterior motion after mitral valve repair

Said, S. M., Schaff, H. V., Suri, R. M., Greason, K. L., Dearani, J. A. & Nishimura, R. A., May 2011, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 91, 5, p. 1427-1432 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mitral Valve
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction
Doppler Echocardiography
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
95 Citations (Scopus)
Constrictive Pericarditis
Gadolinium
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Therapeutics
73 Citations (Scopus)

Cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy

John, A. S., Gurley, F., Schaff, H. V., Warnes, C. A., Phillips, S. D., Arendt, K. W., Abel, M. D., Rose, C. H. & Connolly, H. M., Apr 2011, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 91, 4, p. 1191-1196 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Maternal Death
Mothers
Gestational Age
Pregnancy
175 Citations (Scopus)

Clinical accuracy of RIFLE and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria for acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

Englberger, L., Suri, R. M., Li, Z., Casey, E. T., Daly, R. C., Dearani, J. A. & Schaff, H. V., Jan 13 2011, In : Critical Care. 15, 1, R16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acute Kidney Injury
Thoracic Surgery
Creatinine
Odds Ratio
Water-Electrolyte Balance
45 Citations (Scopus)

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is not a risk factor for acute kidney injury in thoracic aortic surgery

Englberger, L., Suri, R. M., Greason, K. L., Burkhart, H. M., Sundt, T. M., Daly, R. C. & Schaff, H. V., Feb 2011, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141, 2, p. 552-558 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Deep Hypothermia Induced Circulatory Arrest
Acute Kidney Injury
Thoracic Surgery
Thoracic Aorta
Creatinine
56 Citations (Scopus)
Atrial Fibrillation
Thoracic Surgery
Odds Ratio
Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Left Ventricular Function
19 Citations (Scopus)

Does early surgical intervention improve left ventricular mass regression after mitral valve repair for leaflet prolapse?

Stulak, J. M., Suri, R. M., Dearani, J. A., Burkhart, H. M., Sundt, T. M., Sarano, M. E. & Schaff, H. V., Jan 2011, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141, 1, p. 122-129 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prolapse
Mitral Valve
Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency
Stroke Volume
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
55 Citations (Scopus)

Effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate for thromboprophylaxis of mechanical heart valves

McKellar, S. H., Abel, S., Camp, C. L., Suri, R. M., Ereth, M. H. & Schaff, H. V., Jun 2011, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 141, 6, p. 1410-1416 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heart Valves
Enoxaparin
Thrombosis
Blood Platelets
Warfarin
63 Citations (Scopus)

Fate of nonreplaced sinuses of Valsalva in bicuspid aortic valve disease

Park, C. B., Greason, K. L., Suri, R. M., Michelena, H. I., Schaff, H. V. & Sundt, T. M., Aug 2011, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 142, 2, p. 278-284 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sinus of Valsalva
Aortic Diseases
Aortic Valve
Aorta
Dilatation
82 Citations (Scopus)

Functional tricuspid regurgitation at the time of mitral valve repair for degenerative leaflet prolapse: The case for a selective approach

Yilmaz, O., Suri, R. M., Dearani, J. A., Sundt, T. M., Daly, R. C., Burkhart, H. M., Li, Z., Sarano, M. E. & Schaff, H. V., Sep 2011, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 142, 3, p. 608-613 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency
Prolapse
Mitral Valve
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
15 Citations (Scopus)

Hepatic resection for the carcinoid syndrome in patients with severe carcinoid heart disease: Does valve replacement permit safe hepatic resection?

Lillegard, J. B., Fisher, J. E., McKenzie, T. J., Que, F., Farnell, M. B., Kendrick, M. L., Donohue, J. H., Reid-Lombardo, K., Schaff, H. V., Connolly, H. M. & Nagorney, D. M., Jul 2011, In : Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 213, 1, p. 130-136 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carcinoid Heart Disease
Carcinoid Tumor
Liver
Hepatectomy
Survival
29 Citations (Scopus)

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, bleeding history, and acquired Von Willebrand syndrome: Response to septal myectomy

Blackshear, J. L., Schaff, H. V., Ommen, S. R., Chen, D. & Nichols, W. L., 2011, In : Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 86, 3, p. 219-224 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Hemorrhage
Molecular Weight
Aortic Valve Stenosis
von Willebrand Factor
31 Citations (Scopus)

Intraoperative direct measurement of left ventricular outflow tract gradients to guide surgical myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Ashikhmina, E. A., Schaff, H. V., Ommen, S. R., Dearani, J. A., Nishimura, R. A. & Abel, M. D., Jul 2011, In : Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 142, 1, p. 53-59 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction
Doppler Echocardiography
Transesophageal Echocardiography
Heart Ventricles