Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy Trials: New Insights on Cardiovascular Disease from Additional Years of Follow up

Virginia M. Miller, Jo Ann E. Manson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

8 Scopus citations


Debate and controversy surrounding the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease has continued in the decade since the cessation of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy interventions. As a result, many women and their physicians have been reluctant to turn to MHT for relief of vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. However, several follow-up studies of WHI participants provide additional insight into clinical characteristics of women who are more likely to have favorable outcomes and lower rates of adverse events associated with MHT. This report focuses on those studies that identify characteristics and biomarkers helpful in stratifying risk for an individual. Incorporation of these factors into a benefit:risk model could assist in patient-oriented decision making regarding use of MHT. Personalizing treatment offers the potential to minimize risk and improve health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)196-202
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Cardiovascular Risk Reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013



  • Conjugated equine estrogens
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Stroke
  • Timing hypothesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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