PURPOSE: To determine the vitreous penetration of the new fourth-generation topical fluoroquinolones moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3%. METHODS: A prospective randomized clinical trial comprising 12 eyes of 12 patients scheduled for pars plana vitrectomy between August 2003 and September 2003 was performed in a clinical practice. The patients were randomly assigned to receive topical moxifloxacin 0.5% (n = 6) or gatifloxacin 0.3% (n = 6). One half the patients in each antibiotic group received 1 drop every 15 minutes for a total of 3 doses starting 1 hour before surgery, and the other one half self-administered the antibiotic drop 4 times daily for 3 days before surgery and at 7 am on the day of surgery. Undiluted vitreous samples were obtained and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Either moxifloxacin 0.5% or gatifloxacin 0.3% was detected in the vitreous in all 12 patients in the study. There was no significant difference between the mean vitreous concentration of moxifloxacin 0.5% given over 1 hour preoperatively (0.012 ± 0.011 μg/mL) and that given in the 3-day regimen (0.011 ± 0.008 μg/mL) (P = 0.93). There was also no significant difference between the mean vitreous concentration of gatifloxacin 0.3% given over 1 hour preoperatively (0.001 ± 0.0003μg/mL) and that given over 3 days (0.008 ± 0.006 μg/mL) (P = 0.11). Vitreous concentrations of moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% in each eye were all lower than the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration for the commonest bacterial isolates causing endophthalmitis. With both dosing regimens, the mean vitreous concentration of moxifloxacin 0.5% was higher than that of gatifloxacin 0.3% administered at the same regimen, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Both topical moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% penetrated the vitreous in the uninflamed eye, but the vitreous concentrations attained were all lower than the 90% minimum inhibitory concentration for the commonest bacterial pathogens causing acute postoperative endophthalmitis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas