Vitamin D Status and Cardiovascular Risk in Obesity: Effect of Physical Activity in Nonvitamin D Supplemented Adolescents

Md Jobayer Hossain, Alexa Levinson, Donald George, Jose Canas, Seema Kumar, P. Babu Balagopal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The relationship among inadequate vitamin D status, obesity, and cardiometabolic risk and the potential impact of physical activity-based interventions on vitamin D status are poorly characterized in children. This study aimed to address these issues. Methods: We studied a total of 21 adolescents (15 obese and 6 normal weight; age: 14-18 years; Tanner stage>IV). Adolescents with obesity (n = 15) underwent a randomized controlled (8 in the intervention group and 7 in the control group) 3-month physical activity-based lifestyle intervention. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] by mass spectrometry, adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and glucose were measured and body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Analysis of covariance and mixed-effects model were used to compare mean change in 25(OH)D between intervention and nonintervention groups. Bootstrap method was used to validate the estimates and principle component analysis reduced the variables in the data for adjustment. Results: 25(OH)D was lower (P < 0.001) in the obese versus lean adolescents. Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, CRP, fat mass (FM), and body mass index z-score were negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D, while adiponectin showed a positive correlation. After adjustment for baseline biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, the concentration of 25(OH)D increased in the obese intervention group (P = 0.06), but not in the nonintervention group. Fat-free mass increased and FM decreased (P < 0.05 for both) in the intervention group. The magnitudes of increase in 25(OH)D and decrease in FM directly correlated (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The increase in circulating 25(OH)D concentration by physical activity-based lifestyle-only intervention in adolescents with obesity, who did not receive vitamin D supplementation, suggests a putative independent role of physical activity-based interventions in the regulation of vitamin D status and potentially in the mitigation of risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)197-203
Number of pages7
JournalMetabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2018


  • Physical activity
  • Vitamin D
  • cardiovascular risk
  • children
  • obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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