Visualization is one of the primary interfaces between an interventionalist and his patient. This interface is the final integration of several disparate data streams. To develop an appropriate image-guided interface, it is important to understand several aspects of the data acquisition, data processing, and visualization methodologies in the context of the interventional procedure. This chapter introduces the basics of data acquisition and processing for image guidance, including the benefits of both preoperative and intraoperative data streams. 2D and 3D visualization methodologies are described with examples. Several different systems for visualization are introduced, ranging from low-level hardware to software-only render engines. Several clinical examples of visualization for image guidance are described.
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