Visual Vestibular Conflict Mitigation in Virtual Reality Using Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation

Gaurav N. Pradhan, Raquel C. Galvan-Garza, Alison M. Perez, Jan Stepanek, Michael J. cevette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) is an effective technique to reduce cost and increase fidelity in training programs. in VR, visual and vestibular cues are often in conflict, which may result in simulator-induced motion sickness. the purpose of this study is to investigate the integration of Galvanic Vestibular stimulation (GVs) with a VR flight training simulator by assessing flight performance, secondary task performance, simulator sickness and presence. methods: there were 20 participants who performed 2 separate VR flight simulation sessions, with and without GVS (control). Flight performance, secondary task performance, and electrogastrogram were measured during VR flight simulation. the standardized simulator sickness and presence questionnaires were administered. results: electrogastrogram measures such as dominant power instability coefficient (DPiC) and percentages of bradygastric waves (%B) were lower in the GVS session than the control session in the flight simulation (DPiC: 0.44 vs. 0.54; %B: 21.2% vs. 30.5%) and postflight (DPiC: 0.38 vs. 0.53; %B: 22.8% vs. 31.4%) periods. Flight performance (#hit-gates) was improved in the GVS session compared to the control (GVS: 17, Control: 15.5). Secondary task performance (%hits) was improved with GVS for the easy task (GVS: 55.5%, Control: 43.1%). discussion: this study demonstrates the potential of synchronizing GVS with visual stimuli in VR flight training to reduce visual-vestibular sensory conflict to improve fidelity and performance. these results provide initial evidence, but continued research is warranted to further understand the benefits and applications of GVS in VR simulator training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-414
Number of pages9
JournalAerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • flight performance
  • flight simulation
  • galvanic vestibular stimulation
  • simulator sickness
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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