Scaphoid fractures that fail to unite are at risk of developing avascular necrosis and progressive structural collapse, thereby complicating attempts at revision surgical treatment. Vascularized bone grafts have demonstrated utility in promoting consolidation in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions complicated by avascular necrosis. Numerous pedicled and free vascularized grafts have been described with variable, but generally favorable, outcomes. Understanding the indications for different grafts is critical to the successful application of these techniques and grafts in the treatment of challenging scaphoid nonunions.
- vascularized bone graft
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine