Cancer therapies can lead to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular complications. Among these, cardiotoxicities remain of prime concern, but vascular toxicities have emerged as the second most common group. The range of cancer therapies with a vascular toxicity profile and the clinical spectrum of vascular toxic effects are quite broad. Historically, venous thromboembolism has received the greatest attention but, over the past decade, the arterial toxic effects, which can present as acute vasospasm, acute thrombosis and accelerated atherosclerosis, of cancer therapies have gained greater recognition. This Review focuses on these types of cancer therapy-related arterial toxicity, including their mechanisms, and provides an update on venous thromboembolism and pulmonary hypertension associated with cancer therapies. Recommendations for the screening, treatment and prevention of vascular toxic effects of cancer therapies are outlined in the context of available evidence and society guidelines and consensus statements. The shift towards greater awareness of the vascular toxic effects of cancer therapies has further unveiled the urgent needs in this area in terms of defining best clinical practices. Well-designed and well-conducted clinical studies and registries are needed to more precisely define the incidence rates, risk factors, primary and secondary modes of prevention, and best treatment modalities for vascular toxicities related to cancer therapies. These efforts should be complemented by preclinical studies to outline the pathophysiological concepts that can be translated into the clinic and to identify drugs with vascular toxicity potential even before their widespread clinical use.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine