Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes fibrosis resolution and repair in mice

Liu Yang, Junghee Kwon, Yury Popov, Gabriella B. Gajdos, Tamas Ordog, Rolf A. Brekken, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, Detlef Schuppan, Yan Bi, Douglas Simonetto, Vijay Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

113 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background & Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis is implicated in fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. However, the function of VEGF in fibrosis resolution has not been explored. Methods We developed a cholecystojejunostomy procedure to reconstruct biliary flow after bile duct ligation in C57BL/6 mice to generate a model of fibrosis resolution. These mice were then given injections of VEGF-neutralizing (mcr84) or control antibodies, and other mice received an adenovirus that expressed mouse VEGF or a control vector. The procedure was also performed on macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice, in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Liver and blood samples were collected and analyzed in immunohistochemical, morphometric, vascular permeability, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry assays. Results VEGF-neutralizing antibodies prevented development of fibrosis but also disrupted hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. During fibrosis resolution, VEGF inhibition impaired liver sinusoidal permeability, which was associated with reduced monocyte migration, adhesion, and infiltration of fibrotic liver. Scar-associated macrophages contributed to this process by producing the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Resolution of fibrosis was impaired in macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice but increased after overexpression of CXCL9. Conclusions In a mouse model of liver fibrosis resolution, VEGF promoted fibrogenesis, but was also required for hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. We observed that VEGF regulates vascular permeability, monocyte infiltration, and scar-associated macrophages function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGastroenterology
Volume146
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Fibrosis
Macrophages
Liver
Capillary Permeability
Cicatrix
Monocytes
Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
Apoptosis
Ligands
CXC Chemokines
Portal Hypertension
Bile Ducts
Neutralizing Antibodies
Inbred C57BL Mouse
Adenoviridae
Liver Cirrhosis
Ligation
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Permeability

Keywords

  • Extracellular Matrix
  • Hepatic Sinusoid
  • Keywords
  • Liver Damage
  • Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes fibrosis resolution and repair in mice. / Yang, Liu; Kwon, Junghee; Popov, Yury; Gajdos, Gabriella B.; Ordog, Tamas; Brekken, Rolf A.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Schuppan, Detlef; Bi, Yan; Simonetto, Douglas; Shah, Vijay.

In: Gastroenterology, Vol. 146, No. 5, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yang, Liu ; Kwon, Junghee ; Popov, Yury ; Gajdos, Gabriella B. ; Ordog, Tamas ; Brekken, Rolf A. ; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata ; Schuppan, Detlef ; Bi, Yan ; Simonetto, Douglas ; Shah, Vijay. / Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes fibrosis resolution and repair in mice. In: Gastroenterology. 2014 ; Vol. 146, No. 5.
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AU - Brekken, Rolf A.

AU - Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

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AU - Bi, Yan

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N2 - Background & Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis is implicated in fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. However, the function of VEGF in fibrosis resolution has not been explored. Methods We developed a cholecystojejunostomy procedure to reconstruct biliary flow after bile duct ligation in C57BL/6 mice to generate a model of fibrosis resolution. These mice were then given injections of VEGF-neutralizing (mcr84) or control antibodies, and other mice received an adenovirus that expressed mouse VEGF or a control vector. The procedure was also performed on macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice, in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Liver and blood samples were collected and analyzed in immunohistochemical, morphometric, vascular permeability, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry assays. Results VEGF-neutralizing antibodies prevented development of fibrosis but also disrupted hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. During fibrosis resolution, VEGF inhibition impaired liver sinusoidal permeability, which was associated with reduced monocyte migration, adhesion, and infiltration of fibrotic liver. Scar-associated macrophages contributed to this process by producing the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Resolution of fibrosis was impaired in macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice but increased after overexpression of CXCL9. Conclusions In a mouse model of liver fibrosis resolution, VEGF promoted fibrogenesis, but was also required for hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. We observed that VEGF regulates vascular permeability, monocyte infiltration, and scar-associated macrophages function.

AB - Background & Aims Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis is implicated in fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. However, the function of VEGF in fibrosis resolution has not been explored. Methods We developed a cholecystojejunostomy procedure to reconstruct biliary flow after bile duct ligation in C57BL/6 mice to generate a model of fibrosis resolution. These mice were then given injections of VEGF-neutralizing (mcr84) or control antibodies, and other mice received an adenovirus that expressed mouse VEGF or a control vector. The procedure was also performed on macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice, in which macrophages can be selectively depleted. Liver and blood samples were collected and analyzed in immunohistochemical, morphometric, vascular permeability, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry assays. Results VEGF-neutralizing antibodies prevented development of fibrosis but also disrupted hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. During fibrosis resolution, VEGF inhibition impaired liver sinusoidal permeability, which was associated with reduced monocyte migration, adhesion, and infiltration of fibrotic liver. Scar-associated macrophages contributed to this process by producing the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Resolution of fibrosis was impaired in macrophage fas-induced apoptosis mice but increased after overexpression of CXCL9. Conclusions In a mouse model of liver fibrosis resolution, VEGF promoted fibrogenesis, but was also required for hepatic tissue repair and fibrosis resolution. We observed that VEGF regulates vascular permeability, monocyte infiltration, and scar-associated macrophages function.

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