Utilization of the genome aggregation database, in silico tools, and heterologous expression patch-clamp studies to identify and demote previously published type 2 long QT syndrome: Causative variants from pathogenic to likely benign

Connor L. Mattivi, Dan Ye, David J. Tester, Daniel J. Clemens, Wei Zhou, John R. Giudicessi, Michael J. Ackerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Loss-of-function variants in the KCNH2-encoded Kv11.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 2 (LQT2). Presently, hundreds of KCNH2 missense variants (MVs) have been published as “disease-causative.” However, an estimated 10% of rare published LQTS MVs may be “false positives.” Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which published KCNH2 MVs are likely false positives and warrant demotion to “likely benign” status. Methods: A list of 337 LQT2-associated MVs from 6 large compendia was compiled. MV frequency within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) (n = 141,352 individuals) was assessed, and MVs were analyzed with 8 in silico tools. Variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) >7*10E-6, the calculated maximum credible frequency of LQT2, and predicted “benign” by all tools were demoted to “likely benign.” Ultra-rare variants (n = 8) absent in gnomAD but predicted “benign” by all tools were considered as potential false positives and were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp. Results: Overall, 14 of 337 published KCNH2 MVs (4%) were observed at MAF >7*10E-6, whereas 252 of 337 (75%) were absent in gnomAD. Among the latter, 8 variants (I96V, G187S, A203T, P241L, H254Q, G314S, P935S, P963T) were predicted benign by 8 tools and lacked characterization. Patch clamp showed no functional perturbation for these 8 MVs. Conclusion: This study offers compelling evidence for the demotion of 22 of 337 KCNH2 variants (6.5%) in the literature. Meticulous “pruning” of compendia using exome/genome databases, in silico tools, and in vitro functional studies must be conducted not only for putatively pathogenic LQTS MVs but for the entire field of genetic heart disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHeart rhythm
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Keywords

  • Arrhythmia
  • Genetics
  • KCNH2
  • Long QT syndrome
  • Pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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