Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) can identify bony lesions, assess disease burden, and detect extramedullary disease (EMD) in patients with multiple myeloma. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who underwent PET-CT within 60 days of a new diagnosis (before therapy commenced) to identify the nature and prognostic impact of PET-CT abnormalities. Patients (N = 313) were seen from April 2005 through June 2017. Of the 234 patients (75%) with focal lesions (FLs), 182 (58%) had at least 3 FLs, 38 (12%) had EMD, and 204 (65%) had documented myelomatous lytic lesions. The median maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for the entire cohort was 5.9 (range 1.5-48.3). Presence of at least 3 FLs and EMD predicted inferior overall survival (OS); median OS was 57.8 months for patients with 3 or more FLs and 103.6 months for patients with fewer than 3 FLs (P =.003). The median OS was 45.5 and 71.8 months for patients with and without EMD, respectively (P =.004). No clear SUVmax cutoff was predictive of progression-free survival or OS. PET-CT is a valuable tool for assessing disease burden and could provide prognostic information about a contemporary cohort of patients with newly diagnosed myeloma who received treatment with novel agents.
- advanced imaging
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