Use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to predict early response to anti-tumor therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a comparison of intravoxel incoherent motion-derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient

Zheng Yuan, Xiao Min Niu, Xue Mei Liu, Hong Chao Fu, Ting Jia Xue, Chi Wan Koo, Katsuhiro Okuda, Feng Yao, Xiao Dan Ye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis can provide information regarding many physiological and pathological processes. This study aimed to investigate whether IVIM-derived parameters and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can act as imaging biomarkers for predicting non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) response to anti-tumor therapy and compare their performances. Methods: This prospective study included 45 patients with NSCLC treated with chemotherapy (29 men and 16 women, mean age 57.9±9.7 years). Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with 13 b-values before and 2–4 weeks after treatment. The IVIM parameter pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D), and ADC from a mono-exponential model were obtained. Responses 2 months after chemotherapy were assessed. The diagnostic performance was evaluated, and optimal cutoff values were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the differences of progression-free survival (PFS) in groups of responders and non-responders were tested by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Results: Of 45 patients, 30 (66.7%) were categorized as responders, and 15 as non-responders. Differences in the diffusion coefficient D and ADC between responders and non-responders were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conversely, differences in f and D* between responders and non-responders were both not statistically significance (all P>0.05). The ROC analyses showed the change in D value (ΔD) was the best predictor of early response to anti-tumor therapy [area under the ROC curve (AUC), 0.764]. The Cox-regression model showed that all ADC and D parameters were independent predictors of PFS, with a range of reduction in risk from 56.2% to 82.7%, and ΔD criteria responders had the highest reduction (82.7%). Conclusions: ADC and D derived from IVIM are potentially useful for the prediction of NSCLC treatment response to anti-tumor therapy. Although ΔD is best at predicting response to treatment, ΔADC measurement may simplify manual efforts and reduce the workload.

Keywords

  • Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)
  • Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
  • Response evaluation criteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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