Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) inhibits the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition induced by glycochenodeoxycholate

A mechanism of UDCA cytoprotection

R. Botla, J. R. Spivey, H. Aguilar, S. F. Bronk, Gregory James Gores

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Abstract

Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile salt, ameliorates hepatocellular injury by toxic bile salts and is used to treat cholestatic liver disease. However, the mechanisms of bile salt-mediated hepatocyte necrosis and UDCA cytoprotection remain unclear. Hepatocyte necrosis is thought to be caused by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). Thus, the aims of our study were to determine if a toxic bile salt, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) induces the MMPT and if so, whether UDCA prevents the bile salt- induced MMPT. The MMPT was assessed in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Cell viability was measured in isolated rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced the MMPT in a dose-dependent manner. The GCDC-induced MMPT was partially blocked by cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine, known inhibitors of the MMPT. UDCA also inhibited the GCDC-induced MMPT, and partially blocked the MMPT by phenylarsene oxide, an established mediator of the MMPT. UDCA or cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine protected against loss of hepatocyte viability during treatment with GCDC. In conclusion, GCDC induces a MMPT; a finding providing a physicochemical explanation for the bioenergetic form of cell necrosis caused by toxic bile salts. UDCA cytoprotection may, in part, be due to inhibition of the bile salt-induced MMPT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)930-938
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume272
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1995

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Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid
Cytoprotection
Mitochondrial Membranes
Permeability
Bile Acids and Salts
Poisons
Hepatocytes
Trifluoperazine
Necrosis
Cyclosporine
Liver Mitochondrion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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title = "Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) inhibits the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition induced by glycochenodeoxycholate: A mechanism of UDCA cytoprotection",
abstract = "Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile salt, ameliorates hepatocellular injury by toxic bile salts and is used to treat cholestatic liver disease. However, the mechanisms of bile salt-mediated hepatocyte necrosis and UDCA cytoprotection remain unclear. Hepatocyte necrosis is thought to be caused by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). Thus, the aims of our study were to determine if a toxic bile salt, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) induces the MMPT and if so, whether UDCA prevents the bile salt- induced MMPT. The MMPT was assessed in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Cell viability was measured in isolated rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced the MMPT in a dose-dependent manner. The GCDC-induced MMPT was partially blocked by cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine, known inhibitors of the MMPT. UDCA also inhibited the GCDC-induced MMPT, and partially blocked the MMPT by phenylarsene oxide, an established mediator of the MMPT. UDCA or cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine protected against loss of hepatocyte viability during treatment with GCDC. In conclusion, GCDC induces a MMPT; a finding providing a physicochemical explanation for the bioenergetic form of cell necrosis caused by toxic bile salts. UDCA cytoprotection may, in part, be due to inhibition of the bile salt-induced MMPT.",
author = "R. Botla and Spivey, {J. R.} and H. Aguilar and Bronk, {S. F.} and Gores, {Gregory James}",
year = "1995",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "272",
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journal = "Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA) inhibits the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition induced by glycochenodeoxycholate

T2 - A mechanism of UDCA cytoprotection

AU - Botla, R.

AU - Spivey, J. R.

AU - Aguilar, H.

AU - Bronk, S. F.

AU - Gores, Gregory James

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile salt, ameliorates hepatocellular injury by toxic bile salts and is used to treat cholestatic liver disease. However, the mechanisms of bile salt-mediated hepatocyte necrosis and UDCA cytoprotection remain unclear. Hepatocyte necrosis is thought to be caused by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). Thus, the aims of our study were to determine if a toxic bile salt, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) induces the MMPT and if so, whether UDCA prevents the bile salt- induced MMPT. The MMPT was assessed in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Cell viability was measured in isolated rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced the MMPT in a dose-dependent manner. The GCDC-induced MMPT was partially blocked by cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine, known inhibitors of the MMPT. UDCA also inhibited the GCDC-induced MMPT, and partially blocked the MMPT by phenylarsene oxide, an established mediator of the MMPT. UDCA or cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine protected against loss of hepatocyte viability during treatment with GCDC. In conclusion, GCDC induces a MMPT; a finding providing a physicochemical explanation for the bioenergetic form of cell necrosis caused by toxic bile salts. UDCA cytoprotection may, in part, be due to inhibition of the bile salt-induced MMPT.

AB - Ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile salt, ameliorates hepatocellular injury by toxic bile salts and is used to treat cholestatic liver disease. However, the mechanisms of bile salt-mediated hepatocyte necrosis and UDCA cytoprotection remain unclear. Hepatocyte necrosis is thought to be caused by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). Thus, the aims of our study were to determine if a toxic bile salt, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) induces the MMPT and if so, whether UDCA prevents the bile salt- induced MMPT. The MMPT was assessed in isolated rat liver mitochondria. Cell viability was measured in isolated rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced the MMPT in a dose-dependent manner. The GCDC-induced MMPT was partially blocked by cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine, known inhibitors of the MMPT. UDCA also inhibited the GCDC-induced MMPT, and partially blocked the MMPT by phenylarsene oxide, an established mediator of the MMPT. UDCA or cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine protected against loss of hepatocyte viability during treatment with GCDC. In conclusion, GCDC induces a MMPT; a finding providing a physicochemical explanation for the bioenergetic form of cell necrosis caused by toxic bile salts. UDCA cytoprotection may, in part, be due to inhibition of the bile salt-induced MMPT.

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