The two main types of urothelial carcinoma (UC) are papillary UC (pTa) and flat UC (pTis), also known as noninvasive carcinoma in situ. Approximately 75% to 80% of UC are papillary and approximately 20% to 25% are CIS. Papillary tumors tend to recur but not progress to invasive cancer. CIS is aggressive and tends to progress to muscleinvasive cancer.
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