Introduction: Heterogeneity of nephrotic diseases and a lack of validated biomarkers limits interventions and reduces the ability to examine outcomes. Urinary CD80 is a potential biomarker for minimal change disease (MCD) steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (NS). We investigated and validated a CD80 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in urine in a large cohort with a variety of nephrotic diseases. Methods: A commercial CD80 ELISA was enhanced and analytically validated for urine. Patients were from Mayo Clinic (307) and Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network Consortium (NEPTUNE; 104) as follows: minimal change disease (MCD, 56), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, 92), lupus nephritis (LN, 25), IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 20), membranous nephropathy (MN, 49), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, 10), diabetic nephropathy (DN; 106), pyuria (19), and controls (34). Analysis was by Kruskal−Wallis test, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, and receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve. Results: Urinary CD80/creatinine values were highest in MCD compared to other glomerular diseases and were increased in DN with proteinuria >2 compared to controls (control = 36 ng/g; MCD = 139 ng/g, P < 0.01; LN = 90 ng/g, P < 0.12; FSGS = 66 ng/g, P = 0.18; DN = 63, P = 0.03; MN = 69 ng/g, P = 0.33; ng/g, P = 0.07; IgA = 19 ng/g, P = 0.09; ADPKD = 42, P = 0.36; and pyuria 31, P = 0.20; GEE, median, P vs. control). In proteinuric patients, CD80 concentration appears to be independent of proteinuria levels, suggesting that it is unrelated to nonspecific passage across the glomeruli. CD80/creatinine values were higher in paired relapse versus remission cases of MCD and FSGS (P < 0.0001, GEE). Conclusion: Using a validated ELISA, urinary CD80 levels discriminate MCD from other forms of NS (FSGS, DN, IgA, MN) and primary from secondary FSGS.
- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- lupus nephritis
- minimial change disease
- nephrotic syndrome
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