Objectives: This study was conducted to determine whether urinary excretion of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is elevated in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and whether elevated levels predict adverse outcomes. Background: Urinary CNP has been detected in patients with heart failure, but its clinical significance and prognostic utility, compared to established kidney injury biomarkers, in ADHF is unknown. Methods: We measured 24-h urinary excretion and concurrent plasma concentrations of CNP22, CNP53, and NT-CNP53 in 58 ADHF patients and 20 healthy control subjects. Urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and plasma N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were also measured. Mortality and all-cause rehospitalization/death were assessed over a follow-up of 1.5 ± 0.9 years. Results: ADHF patients had higher urinary excretion of all 3 CNP molecular forms than did controls. Plasma CNP22 and CNP53 were elevated in ADHF but showed limited correlation with urinary excretion, suggesting that mainly renal-derived CNP appears in urine. Plasma NT-proBNP and urinary KIM-1 were also elevated in ADHF (p < 0.0001); urinary NGAL was similar to that in controls. At 6 months, event-free survival values in ADHF patients were 86% for mortality and 59% for all-cause rehospitalization/death. On Cox regression analysis, urinary NT-CNP53 was the only predictor of mortality (hazard ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 2.4; p = 0.01) and all-cause rehospitalization/death (hazard ratio: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 2.4; p = 0.0004), even after adjustment. Integrated discrimination analysis suggested that urinary NT-CNP53 combined with plasma NT-proBNP improved the prediction of adverse outcomes. Conclusions: The findings from this study support the clinical utility of urinary CNP molecular forms. In ADHF, urinary NT-CNP53 correlated with prognosis, better predicted outcomes than did urinary NGAL and KIM-1, and improved the prognostic value of plasma NT-proBNP.
- Acute decompensated heart failure
- C-type natriuretic peptide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine