Filoviruses, represented by the genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, cause a lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans and in nonhuman primates. Although filovirus can replicate in various tissues or cell types in these animals, the molecular mechanisms of its broad tropism remain poorly understood. Here we show the involvement of members of the Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase family-Axl, Dtk, and Mer-in cell entry of filoviruses. Ectopic expression of these family members in lymphoid cells, which otherwise are highly resistant to filovirus infection, enhanced infection by pseudotype viruses carrying filovirus glycoproteins on their envelopes. This enhancement was reduced by antibodies to Tyro3 family members, Gas6 ligand, or soluble ectodomains of the members. Live Ebola viruses infected both Axl- and Dtk-expressing cells more efficiently than control cells. Antibody to Axl inhibited infection of pseudotype viruses in a number of Axl-positive cell lines. These results implicate each Tyro3 family member as a cell entry factor in filovirus infection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science