Introduction: Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival after curative intent resection for localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Given the differences in perioperative morbidity, we hypothesized that patients undergoing distal partial pancreatectomy (DPP) would receive adjuvant therapy more often those undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). Methods: The National Cancer Data Base (2004–2012) identified patients with localized PDAC undergoing DPP and PD, excluding neoadjuvant cases, and factors associated with receipt of adjuvant therapy were identified. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Overall, 13,501 patients were included (DPP, n = 1933; PD, n = 11,568). Prognostic characteristics were similar, except DPP patients had fewer N1 lesions, less often positive margins, more minimally invasive resections, and shorter hospital stay. The proportion of patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy was equivalent (DPP 33.7%, PD 32.0%; p = 0.148). The type of procedure was not independently associated with adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.90–1.02; p = 0.150), and patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had improved unadjusted and adjusted OS compared with surgery alone. The type of resection did not predict adjusted mortality (p = 0.870). Conclusion: Receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy did not vary by type of resection but improved survival independent of procedure performed. Factors other than type of resection appear to be driving the nationwide rates of post-resection adjuvant chemotherapy in localized PDAC.
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