The concept of opposition-based learning (OBL) can be categorized into Type-I and Type-II OBL methodologies. The Type-I OBL is based on the opposite points in the variable space while the Type-II OBL considers the opposite of function value on the landscape. In the past few years, many research works have been conducted on development of Type-I OBL-based approaches with application in science and engineering, such as opposition-based differential evolution (ODE). However, compared to Type-I OBL, which cannot address a real sense of opposition in term of objective value, the Type-II OBL is capable to discover more meaningful knowledge about problem's landscape. Due to natural difficulty of proposing a Type-II-based approach, very limited research has been reported in that direction. In this paper, for the first time, the concept of Type-II OBL has been investigated in detail in optimization; also it is applied on the DE algorithm as a case study. The proposed algorithm is called opposition-based differential evolution Type-II (ODE-II) algorithm; it is validated on the testbed proposed for the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation 2013 (IEEE CEC-2013) contest with 28 benchmark functions. Simulation results on the benchmark functions demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method as the first step for further developments in Type-II OBL-based schemes.