Type 2 Myocardial Infarction: JACC Review Topic of the Week

Yader Sandoval, Allan S. Jaffe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Acute myocardial infarction (MI) can occur from increased myocardial oxygen demand and/or reduced supply in the absence of acute atherothrombotic plaque disruption; a condition called type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI). As with any MI subtype, there must be clinical evidence of myocardial ischemia to make the diagnosis. This condition is increasingly diagnosed due to the increasing sensitivity of cardiac troponin assays and is associated with adverse short-term and long-term prognoses. Limited data exist defining optimal management strategies because T2MI is a heterogeneous entity with varying etiologies and triggers. Thus, these patients require individualized care. A major barrier is the absence of a uniform definition that can be operationalized with high reproducibility. This document provides a synthesis of the data about T2MI to assist clinicians’ understanding of its pathobiology, when to deploy the diagnosis, and its associated treatments. It also clarifies prognosis, identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations for moving forward.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1846-1860
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 16 2019


  • Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction
  • acute myocardial infarction
  • cardiac troponin
  • myocardial injury
  • type 2 myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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