Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and carries a discouraging prognosis. Its aggressive and highly infiltrative nature renders the current standard treatment of maximal surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy relatively ineffective. Identifying the signaling pathways that regulate GBM migration/invasion and resistance is required to develop more effective therapeutic regimens to treat GBM. Expression of TROY, an orphan receptor of the TNF receptor superfamily, increases with glial tumor grade, inversely correlates with patient overall survival, stimulates GBM cell invasion in vitro and in vivo, and increases resistance to temozolomide and radiation therapy. Conversely, silencing TROY expression inhibits GBM cell invasion, increases sensitivity to temozolomide, and prolongs survival in a preclinical intracranial xenograft model. Here, we have identified for the first time that TROY interacts with JAK1. Increased TROY expression increases JAK1 phosphorylation. In addition, increased TROY expression promotes STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 transcriptional activity that is dependent upon JAK1. TROY-mediated activation of STAT3 is independent of its ability to stimulate activity of NF-κB. Inhibition of JAK1 activity by ruxolitinib or knockdown of JAK1 expression by siRNA significantly inhibits TROY-induced STAT3 activation, GBM cell migration, and decreases resistance to temozolomide. Taken together, our data indicate that the TROY signaling complex may represent a potential therapeutic target with the distinctive capacity to exert effects on multiple pathways mediating GBM cell invasion and resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research