Background: We studied the utility of the tumor suppressor Tristetraprolin (TTP, ZFP36) as a clinically relevant biomarker of aggressive disease in prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: TTP RNA expression was measured in an RP cohort of patients treated at Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) and obtained from six publically available RP datasets with biochemical recurrence (BCR; total n = 1,394) and/or metastatic outcome data (total n = 1,222). TTP protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray of 153 MCC RP samples. The time to BCR or metastasis based on TTP RNA or protein levels was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were performed on multiple cohorts to evaluate if TTP is a clinically relevant biomarker and to assess if TTP improves upon the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment postsurgical (CAPRA-S) score for predicting clinical outcomes. Results: In all of the RP patient cohorts, prostate cancer with low TTP RNA or protein levels had decreased time to BCR or metastasis versus TTP-high tumors. Further, the decreased time to BCR in TTP-low prostate cancer was more pronounced in low-grade tumors. Finally, pooled survival analysis suggests that TTP RNA expression provides independent information beyond CAPRA-S to predict BCR. Conclusions: TTP is a promising prostate cancer biomarker for predicting which RP patients will have poor outcomes, especially for low-grade prostate cancer patients. Impact: This study suggests that TTP RNA expression can be used to enhance the accuracy of CAPRA-S to predict outcomes in patients treated with RP.
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