In patients with HIV, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved life expectancy. At the same time, this increase in life expectancy has been associated with a higher frequency of chronic kidney disease due to factors other than HIV infection. Besides HIV-associated nephropathy, a number of different types of immune complex and non-immune complex-mediated processes have been identified on kidney biopsies, including vascular disease (nephrosclerosis), diabetes, and drug-related renal injury. In this setting, renal biopsy needs to be considered in order to obtain the correct diagnosis in individual patients with HIV and kidney impairment. Many issues regarding the optimal treatment of the different pathological processes affecting the kidneys of these patients have remained unresolved. Further research is needed in order to optimize treatment and renal outcomes in patients with HIV and kidney disease.
- Human immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas