Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents: Psychiatric disorders at one year

Jeffrey E. Max, Donald A. Robin, Scott D. Lindgren, Wilbur L. Smith, Yutaka Sato, Philip J. Mattheis, Julie A.G. Stierwalt, Carlos S. Castillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Scopus citations


Factors predictive of psychiatric outcome in the second 6 months following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 43 children and adolescents were assessed prospectively. The outcome measure was the presence of a psychiatric disorder not present before the injury ('novel'). Out of six models tested, four were predictive of novel psychiatric disorder: preinjury family function, family psychiatric history, socioeconomic class/intellectual function, and behavior/adaptive function. Post hoc analyses suggested that preinjury family functioning measured by a structured interview was a significant predictive variable. Severity of injury, when reclassified as severe versus mild/moderate TBI, significantly predicted novel psychiatric disorders. These data suggest that some children, identifiable through clinical assessment, are at increased risk for psychiatric disorders following TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-297
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Max, J. E., Robin, D. A., Lindgren, S. D., Smith, W. L., Sato, Y., Mattheis, P. J., Stierwalt, J. A. G., & Castillo, C. S. (1998). Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents: Psychiatric disorders at one year. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(3), 290-297.