Objectives To determine event-free survival after transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect (VSD), and to identify predictors of adverse events (AE) in post myocardial infarction VSD (post-MI VSD) subgroup. Background There are limited data on mid-term follow-up after transcatheter VSD closure. Methods Retrospective review of 27 cases of transcatheter VSD closure (post-MI = 18 and non-ischemic = 9) performed from 1999 to 2013. We defined AE as death, device embolization, hemolysis requiring blood transfusion, heart block and reintervention. Results In the post-MI VSD subgroup, mean age and follow-up was 69 ± 11 and 7.3 ± 7 years, respectively. AE occurred in 8 (44%) patients (death-3, device embolization-1, hemolysis-1, surgical VSD closure-2, reintervention-1). Event-free survival was 56% at 1 month and 5 years, and all AE occurred in the periprocedural period. Cardiogenic shock (HR: 3.21, CI: 1.82-5.41, P = 0.002), and VSD closure in acute phase (HR: 2.14, CI: 1.12-4.31, P = 0.004) were independent predictors of AE. In the non-ischemic VSD subgroup, mean age and follow-up was 49 ± 15 and 8.7 ± 8 years, respectively. AE occurred in 3 (33%) patients (late death-1, surgical VSD closure-2). For the entire cohort, freedom from death was 89% and 85% at 1 month and 5 years, and event-free survival was 70% and 61% at 1 month and 5 years. Conclusions Transcatheter closure of post-MI VSD carries a moderate risk of periprocedural complications but low event rates afterwards. By comparison, device closure of non-ischemic VSD has lower periprocedural morbidity but some patients continued to experience AE during follow-up.
- myocardial infarction
- ventricular septal defect
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine