Tranexamic Acid Administration Is Not Associated With an Increase in Complications in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Primary Total Knee or Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Case-Control Study of 38,220 Patients

Steven B. Porter, Launia J. White, Osayande Osagiede, Christopher B. Robards, Aaron Spaulding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to reduce postoperative blood loss and transfusion is a well-established practice for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, clinical concerns remain about the safety of TXA in patients with a history of a prothrombotic condition. We sought to determine the risk of complications between high-risk and low-risk TKA and THA patients receiving TXA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 38,220 patients (8877 high-risk cases) who underwent primary TKA and THA between 2011 and 2017 at our institution. Intravenous TXA was administered in 20,501 (54%) of cases. The rates of thrombotic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE], myocardial infarction [MI], and cerebrovascular accident [CVA]) as well as mortality and readmission were assessed at 90 days postoperatively. Additionally, we evaluated 90-day postoperative occurrence of DVT and PE separate from occurrence of MI and CVA. Patients were categorized as high risk if they had a past medical history of a prothrombotic condition prior to surgery. Results: There was no significant difference in the odds of these adverse outcomes between high-risk patients who received TXA and high-risk patients who did not receive TXA (odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.18). There were also no differences when evaluating the odds of 90-day postoperative DVT and PE (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.59-1.19) nor MI and CVA (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.56-1.49) for high-risk patients receiving TXA vs high-risk patients who did not receive TXA. Conclusion: TXA administration to high-risk TKA and THA patients is not associated with a statistically significant difference in adverse outcomes. We present incremental evidence in support of TXA administration for high-risk patients undergoing primary arthroplasties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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Tranexamic Acid
Arthroplasty
Case-Control Studies
Hip
Knee
Knee Replacement Arthroplasties
Pulmonary Embolism
Venous Thrombosis
Stroke
Odds Ratio
Myocardial Infarction
Confidence Intervals
Postoperative Hemorrhage
Blood Transfusion

Keywords

  • perioperative medicine
  • total hip arthroplasty
  • total joint arthroplasty
  • total knee arthroplasty
  • tranexamic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

@article{cd00760a9e3b409c9f64b7fcd0067cea,
title = "Tranexamic Acid Administration Is Not Associated With an Increase in Complications in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Primary Total Knee or Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Case-Control Study of 38,220 Patients",
abstract = "Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to reduce postoperative blood loss and transfusion is a well-established practice for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, clinical concerns remain about the safety of TXA in patients with a history of a prothrombotic condition. We sought to determine the risk of complications between high-risk and low-risk TKA and THA patients receiving TXA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 38,220 patients (8877 high-risk cases) who underwent primary TKA and THA between 2011 and 2017 at our institution. Intravenous TXA was administered in 20,501 (54{\%}) of cases. The rates of thrombotic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE], myocardial infarction [MI], and cerebrovascular accident [CVA]) as well as mortality and readmission were assessed at 90 days postoperatively. Additionally, we evaluated 90-day postoperative occurrence of DVT and PE separate from occurrence of MI and CVA. Patients were categorized as high risk if they had a past medical history of a prothrombotic condition prior to surgery. Results: There was no significant difference in the odds of these adverse outcomes between high-risk patients who received TXA and high-risk patients who did not receive TXA (odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.18). There were also no differences when evaluating the odds of 90-day postoperative DVT and PE (OR 0.84, 95{\%} CI 0.59-1.19) nor MI and CVA (OR 0.91, 95{\%} CI 0.56-1.49) for high-risk patients receiving TXA vs high-risk patients who did not receive TXA. Conclusion: TXA administration to high-risk TKA and THA patients is not associated with a statistically significant difference in adverse outcomes. We present incremental evidence in support of TXA administration for high-risk patients undergoing primary arthroplasties.",
keywords = "perioperative medicine, total hip arthroplasty, total joint arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, tranexamic acid",
author = "Porter, {Steven B.} and White, {Launia J.} and Osayande Osagiede and Robards, {Christopher B.} and Aaron Spaulding",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.arth.2019.08.015",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Arthroplasty",
issn = "0883-5403",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tranexamic Acid Administration Is Not Associated With an Increase in Complications in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Primary Total Knee or Total Hip Arthroplasty

T2 - A Retrospective Case-Control Study of 38,220 Patients

AU - Porter, Steven B.

AU - White, Launia J.

AU - Osagiede, Osayande

AU - Robards, Christopher B.

AU - Spaulding, Aaron

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to reduce postoperative blood loss and transfusion is a well-established practice for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, clinical concerns remain about the safety of TXA in patients with a history of a prothrombotic condition. We sought to determine the risk of complications between high-risk and low-risk TKA and THA patients receiving TXA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 38,220 patients (8877 high-risk cases) who underwent primary TKA and THA between 2011 and 2017 at our institution. Intravenous TXA was administered in 20,501 (54%) of cases. The rates of thrombotic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE], myocardial infarction [MI], and cerebrovascular accident [CVA]) as well as mortality and readmission were assessed at 90 days postoperatively. Additionally, we evaluated 90-day postoperative occurrence of DVT and PE separate from occurrence of MI and CVA. Patients were categorized as high risk if they had a past medical history of a prothrombotic condition prior to surgery. Results: There was no significant difference in the odds of these adverse outcomes between high-risk patients who received TXA and high-risk patients who did not receive TXA (odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.18). There were also no differences when evaluating the odds of 90-day postoperative DVT and PE (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.59-1.19) nor MI and CVA (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.56-1.49) for high-risk patients receiving TXA vs high-risk patients who did not receive TXA. Conclusion: TXA administration to high-risk TKA and THA patients is not associated with a statistically significant difference in adverse outcomes. We present incremental evidence in support of TXA administration for high-risk patients undergoing primary arthroplasties.

AB - Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) administration to reduce postoperative blood loss and transfusion is a well-established practice for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, clinical concerns remain about the safety of TXA in patients with a history of a prothrombotic condition. We sought to determine the risk of complications between high-risk and low-risk TKA and THA patients receiving TXA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 38,220 patients (8877 high-risk cases) who underwent primary TKA and THA between 2011 and 2017 at our institution. Intravenous TXA was administered in 20,501 (54%) of cases. The rates of thrombotic complications (deep vein thrombosis [DVT], pulmonary embolism [PE], myocardial infarction [MI], and cerebrovascular accident [CVA]) as well as mortality and readmission were assessed at 90 days postoperatively. Additionally, we evaluated 90-day postoperative occurrence of DVT and PE separate from occurrence of MI and CVA. Patients were categorized as high risk if they had a past medical history of a prothrombotic condition prior to surgery. Results: There was no significant difference in the odds of these adverse outcomes between high-risk patients who received TXA and high-risk patients who did not receive TXA (odds ratio [OR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.18). There were also no differences when evaluating the odds of 90-day postoperative DVT and PE (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.59-1.19) nor MI and CVA (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.56-1.49) for high-risk patients receiving TXA vs high-risk patients who did not receive TXA. Conclusion: TXA administration to high-risk TKA and THA patients is not associated with a statistically significant difference in adverse outcomes. We present incremental evidence in support of TXA administration for high-risk patients undergoing primary arthroplasties.

KW - perioperative medicine

KW - total hip arthroplasty

KW - total joint arthroplasty

KW - total knee arthroplasty

KW - tranexamic acid

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DO - 10.1016/j.arth.2019.08.015

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JF - Journal of Arthroplasty

SN - 0883-5403

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