There is currently considerable imprecision in the nosology of biomarkers used in the study of neuropsychiatric disease. The neuropsychiatric field lags behind others such as oncology, wherein, rather than using 'biomarker' as a blanket term for a diverse range of clinical phenomena, biomarkers have been actively classified into separate categories, including prognostic and predictive tests. A similar taxonomy is proposed for neuropsychiatric diseases in which the core biology remains relatively unknown. This paper divides potential biomarkers into those of (1) risk, (2) diagnosis/trait, (3) state or acuity, (4) stage, (5) treatment response and (6) prognosis, and provides illustrative exemplars. Of course, biomarkers rely on available technology and, as we learn more about the neurobiological correlates of neuropsychiatric disorders, we will realize that the classification of biomarkers across these six categories can change, and some markers may fit into more than one category.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience