Total Knee Arthroplasty after High Tibial Osteotomy Results in Excellent Long-Term Survivorship and Clinical Outcomes

Brian P. Chalmers, Afton K. Limberg, Meagan E. Tibbo, Kevin I. Perry, Mark Pagnano, Matthew Abdel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background:Some prior reports of total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy have shown high rates of aseptic loosening. As such, the goal of this study was to analyze the outcomes of contemporary total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy, with particular emphasis on survivorship free from aseptic loosening, any revision, and any reoperation; complications; radiographic results; and clinical outcomes.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed 207 patients who underwent 231 total knee arthroplasties using cemented prostheses after high tibial osteotomy from 2000 to 2012 through our total joint registry: 87% were after a closing-wedge osteotomy and 13% were after an opening-wedge osteotomy. The mean follow-up from total knee arthroplasty was 8 years. At the time of the total knee arthroplasty, the mean age was 64 years and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. The majority of total knee arthroplasties had a posterior-stabilized design (93%), and 4% had a varus-valgus constraint design. Tibial stems were utilized in 8% of cases. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were utilized to analyze risk factors for poorer survival.Results:At 10 years, survivorship free from aseptic loosening was 97%, survivorship free from any revision was 90%, and survivorship free from any reoperation was 85%. Fifteen patients (15 total knee arthroplasties [6%]) underwent aseptic revision, most commonly for instability (3%), aseptic loosening (2%), and periprosthetic fracture (1%). On bivariate analysis, patient age of <60 years was a significant risk factor for poorer revision-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.9; p = 0.02); on multivariate analysis, younger age was the only significant risk factor for revision (p = 0.04). There were 14 complications (6%), the most common being a manipulation under anesthesia in 9 cases (4%). No unrevised total knee arthroplasties had definitive radiographic evidence of loosening. Knee Society scores improved from a mean preoperative score of 59 points to a mean postoperative score of 93 points (p < 0.001).Conclusions:Contemporary total knee arthroplasty with a cemented prosthesis after high tibial osteotomy demonstrated excellent long-term durability, with 10-year survivorship free from aseptic loosening of 97%. There was reliable improvement in clinical outcomes, but perfect knee balance was sometimes challenging, as reflected by a 4% prevalence of manipulation under anesthesia and a 3% prevalence of revision for instability.Level of Evidence:Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)970-978
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume
Volume101
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 5 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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