Study design: Basic science. Objective: Investigate the ability of local applicaiton of vancomycin, either in powder form or suspended within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (MS), to treat infection using a rat spinal model. Summary of background data: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a serious complication after spine surgery and are associated with high morbidity and mortality and often caused my coagulase negative staphylococci. A comprehensive approach to reduce SSIs has been recommended including the use of topical vancomycin. Animal and human studies have shown improved control of infection with local compared to systemic antibiotics. Methods: K-wires seeded with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A (MRSE) were treated with vancomycin powder, carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) (microsphere carrier), vancomycin powder, blank MS or vancomycin-loaded MS for 24 or 48 h in vitro after which bacteria were enumerated. In addition, a spinal instrumentation model was developed in rats with a bacterial seeded K-wire implanted into the right side of L4 and L5. Rats underwent no treatment or were treated locally with either vancomycin powder, blank MS or vancomycin-loaded MS. After 8 weeks, the K-wire, bone, soft tissue and wire fastener were cultured and results analyzed. Results: Vancomycin powder and vancomycin-loaded MS resulted in significantly fewer bacteria remaining in vitro than did CMC. Vancomycin powder- treated animals’ cultures were significantly lower than all other groups (P < 0.0001) with negative culture results, except for one animal. The vancomycin-loaded MS-treated animals had lower bone bacterial counts than the controls (P < 0.0279); blank MS-treated animals had no differences in bacterial densities when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion: Vancomycin powder and vancomycin-loaded MS were active against MRSE in vitro, in a rat MRSE implant model; however, vancomycin MS were inferior to the topical vancomycin powder. Vancomycin powder prevented MRSE infection in a rat spinal implant infection model.
- Local application of antibiotic
- Spinal infection
- Vancomycin powder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine