Circadian rhythm disruption (CD) is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While the link between CD and T2DM remains unclear, there is accumulating evidence that disruption of fasting/feeding cycles mediates metabolic dysfunction. Here, we used an approach encompassing analysis of behavioral, physiological, transcriptomic, and epigenomic effects of CD and consequences of restoring fasting/feeding cycles through time-restricted feeding (tRF) in mice. Results show that CD perturbs glucose homeostasis through disruption of pancreatic β cell function and loss of circadian transcriptional and epigenetic identity. In contrast, restoration of fasting/feeding cycle prevented CD-mediated dysfunction by reestablishing circadian regulation of glucose tolerance, β cell function, transcriptional profile, and reestablishment of proline and acidic amino acid- rich basic leucine zipper (PAR bZIP) transcription factor DBP expression/activity. This study provides mechanistic insights into circadian regulation of β cell function and corresponding beneficial effects of tRF in prevention of T2DM.
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