Thyroid hormones are extremely important for metabolism, development, and growth during the lifetime. The hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis is precisely regulated for these purposes. Much of our knowledge of this hormonal axis is derived from experiments in animals and mutations in man. This review examines the hypothalamo- pituitary-thyroid axis particularly in relation to the regulated 24-hour serumTSHconcentration profiles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including obesity, primary hypothyroidism, pituitary diseases, psychiatric disorders, and selected neurological diseases. Diurnal TSH rhythms can be analyzed with novel and precise techniques, eg, operator-independent deconvolution and approximate entropy. These approaches provide indirect insight in the regulatory components in pathophysiological conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism