INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to find out whether 3-dimensional (3D)-printed models improved the learners' ability to identify liver segments. METHODS: A total of 116 physicians from 3 disciplines were tested in a cross-over trial at baseline and after teaching with 3D models and 2-dimensional (2D) images. Adjusted multilevel-mixed models were used to compare scores at baseline and after 3D and 2D. RESULTS: Accuracy in identifying hepatic segments was higher with 3D first than 2D (77% vs 69%; P = 0.05) and not significantly improved by a combination of 3D and 2D. Increased confidence in segment identification was highest in trainees after 3D (P = 0.04). DISCUSSION: 3D-printed models facilitate learning hepatic segmental anatomy.
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