Current minimally invasive optical techniques for in vivo deep-brain imaging provide a limited resolution, field of view, and speed. These limitations prohibit direct assessment of detailed histomorphology of various deep-seated brain diseases at their native state and therefore hinder the potential clinical utilities of those techniques. Here, we report an ultracompact (580 μm in outer diameter) theranostic deep-brain microneedle combining 800-nm optical coherence tomography imaging with laser ablation. Its performance was demonstrated by in vivo ultrahigh-resolution (1.7 μm axial and 5.7 μm transverse), high-speed (20 frames per second) volumetric imaging of mouse brain microstructures and optical attenuation coefficients. Its translational potential was further demonstrated by in vivo cancer visualization (with an imaging depth of 1.23 mm) and efficient tissue ablation (with a 1448-nm continuous-wave laser at a 350-mW power) in a deep mouse brain (with an ablation depth of about 600 μm).
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