MUTYH adenomatous polyposis (MAP) can mimic both the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) phenotypes. As a result of MAP's phenotypic overlap with FAP, some DNA diagnostic laboratories perform MUTYH testing in conjunction with APC testing in patients with suspected FAP or attenuated FAP (AFAP). In addition to testing FAP/AFAP samples for MUTYH mutations, we were interested whether there would also be value in testing samples referred for HNPCC testing. To determine this, we tested a consecutive series of 229 samples referred for HNPCC testing for the two most common MUTYH mutations in the Caucasian population. To enrich our study population with MAP cases, we only included samples from patients with early onset colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosed <50 years old) in whom HNPCC had been excluded by microsatellite instability testing (microsatellite stable or low microsatellite instability). Four biallelic (2%) and six monoallelic (3%) MUTYH mutation carriers were identified. No clinical factors predicted MUTYH mutation status. Specifically, a family history of vertical transmission of CRC or having few polyps (<15) did not rule out the possibility of biallelic MUTYH mutations. Thus, MUTYH mutation testing may be a reasonable cascade test in early onset CRC found to have proficient DNA mismatch repair, regardless of pattern of family history or number of polyps.
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