The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents

Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward

Colleen M. Novak, Paul R. Burghardt, James A. Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

142 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Running wheels are commonly employed to measure rodent physical activity in a variety of contexts, including studies of energy balance and obesity. There is no consensus on the nature of wheel-running activity or its underlying causes, however. Here, we will begin by systematically reviewing how running wheel availability affects physical activity and other aspects of energy balance in laboratory rodents. While wheel running and physical activity in the absence of a wheel commonly correlate in a general sense, in many specific aspects the two do not correspond. In fact, the presence of running wheels alters several aspects of energy balance, including body weight and composition, food intake, and energy expenditure of activity. We contend that wheel-running activity should be considered a behavior in and of itself, reflecting several underlying behavioral processes in addition to a rodent's general, spontaneous activity. These behavioral processes include defensive behavior, predatory aggression, and depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. As it relates to energy balance, wheel running engages several brain systems-including those related to the stress response, mood, and reward, and those responsive to growth factors-that influence energy balance indirectly. We contend that wheel-running behavior represents factors in addition to rodents' tendency to be physically active, engaging additional neural and physiological mechanisms which can then independently alter energy balance and behavior. Given the impact of wheel-running behavior on numerous overlapping systems that influence behavior and physiology, this review outlines the need for careful design and interpretation of studies that utilize running wheels as a means for exercise or as a measurement of general physical activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1001-1014
Number of pages14
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume36
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012

Fingerprint

Reward
Running
Rodentia
Predatory Behavior
Body Composition
Aggression
Energy Metabolism
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Consensus
Anxiety
Obesity
Eating
Body Weight
Depression
Brain

Keywords

  • Brain
  • Energy balance
  • Reward
  • Running wheel
  • Wheel-running activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Cite this

The use of a running wheel to measure activity in rodents : Relationship to energy balance, general activity, and reward. / Novak, Colleen M.; Burghardt, Paul R.; Levine, James A.

In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 36, No. 3, 03.2012, p. 1001-1014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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