In reconstructive surgery, fascial flaps provide thin, pliable tissue for mucosal closure or serve as a highly vascularized support for skin grafts. Their angiogenic potential is used for experimental neovascularization of avascular tissue grafts. However, most fascial flaps in animal surgery have random pattern design with short reach. As a pilot study for a femur revascularization project in rabbits, a new axial fascial flap is described based on the superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) vessels. They were used in this species previously only as ligated bundles or in fasciocutaneous flaps. The topographical anatomy of the SIE-vessels, lower abdominal fascia, and panniculus carnosus are outlined. The angiogenic capabilities are demonstrated microangiographically by abundant vessel formation in a femur allograft. Used in a pedicled fashion, this flap is an alternative to femoral and saphenous vessels for prefabrication or revascularization procedures in the lower abdomen, genital area, and thigh. Distant recipient sites seem possible with microsurgical transfer.
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