Acquired demyelinating syndromes in childhood comprise a spectrum of monophasic and recurrent inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system. Examples of monophasic conditions include, clinically isolated syndromes such as optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, as well as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas recurrent disorders include entities such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Knowledge about these disorders has expanded due to rigorously evaluated diagnostic criteria, magnetic resonance imaging features, outcomes, and serum biomarkers in these disorders. This review aims to provide a summary of clinical developments in pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes, with a special focus on diagnostic criteria, neuroinflammatory markers, burden of disease in addition to current and potential future treatment options.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology