Current dietary recommendations for patients with diabetes are similar to those for the US population in general, including a moderate intake of sucrose. Awareness of the carbohydrate content of meals will allow adjustments of the dose of meal-related short-acting insulin when the size of the meal is altered; thus, meal planning can be flexible without sacrificing glycemic control. Although exercise may have potential benefits for patients with diabetes, it is also associated with greater risk in these persons than in their nondiabetic counterparts and frequently complicates the management of their disease. If there are no contraindications to regular, vigorous exercise and the patient desires to participate, careful self-monitoring of blood glucose, combined with snacks and insulin dose adjustment, should enable the intensively treated patient to exercise safely.
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