The role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the differential diagnosis of pericardial disease

Cheol Won Hyeon, Hyun Kyung Yi, Eun Kyoung Kim, Sung Ji Park, Sang Chol Lee, Seung Woo Park, Jae K. Oh, Joon Young Choi, Sung A. Chang

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) in the differential diagnosis of pericardial disease. The diagnosis is often troublesome because pericardial fluid analysis or biopsy does not always provide answers. 18FDG-PET/CT can visualize both inflammation and malignancy and offers a whole-body assessment. Patients who visited the Pericardial Disease Clinic of Samsung Medical Center with an 18FDG-PET/CT order code were extracted. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the purpose of the differential diagnosis was not pericardial disease; (2) the patient had a known advanced-stage malignancy; (3) the patient already have confirmative diagnosis using a serology, pericardial effusion analysis or biopsy. The analysis included 107 patients. The most common final diagnosis was idiopathic (n = 46, 43.0%), followed by tuberculosis (n = 30, 28.0%) and neoplastic (n = 11, 10.3%). A maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ≥ 5 typically indicates tuberculosis or neoplastic pericarditis except in just one case of autoimmune pericarditis); especially all of the SUVmax scores ≥ 10 had tuberculosis. The diagnostic yield of pericardial biopsy was very low (10.2%). Interestingly, all of the pericardium with an SUVmax < 4.4 had nondiagnostic results. In contrast, targeted biopsies based on 18FDG uptake demonstrated a higher diagnostic yield (38.7%) than pericardium. The sensitivity of 18FDG-PET/CT was 63.6%. The specificity was 71.9%. The positive predictive value was 20.6%. The negative predictive value 94.5%, and the accuracy was 71.0% for excluding malignancy based upon the FDG uptake patterns. It is possible to explore the differential diagnosis in some patients with difficult pericardiocentesis or pericardial biopsy in a noninvasive manner using on the SUVmax or uptake patterns. In addition, the biopsy strategy depending on 18FDG uptake is helpful to achieve biopsy more safely and with a higher yield. 18FDG-PET may enhance the diagnostic efficacy in patients with pericardial disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number21524
JournalScientific reports
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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