Of about 6.7 million Americans who have coronary artery disease, approximately 700,000 undergo various noncardiac operations annually in the United States. Perioperative cardiac complications remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality not related to the primary operative procedure; the mechanisms of perioperative ischemia and infarction are unclear. Currently, clinicians, using a combination of clinical and laboratory findings, can estimate the risk of noncardiac surgical procedures with a high degree of precision, but much less is known about the preferred approach to patient management after noninvasive risk stratification. Coronary angiography and revascularization are frequently recommended for those determined by functional tests to be at moderate and high risk, but the risks of revascularization are often substantially higher among these patients. No randomized, controlled trials exist to guide patient management. Quantitative decision analysis based on published nonrandomized data suggests that coronary angiography with selective myocardial revascularization should be performed to reduce the risk of noncardiac surgery only if the risk of noncardiac surgery is greater than 5% and the risk of coronary angiography with selective revascularization is less than 3%. On the other hand, if independent indications exist for myocardial revascularization, it should generally be performed before the noncardiac operation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine