Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver of global importance. Recent studies of the expression and role of microRNA (miRNA) in HCC are providing new insights into disease pathogenesis. In addition, therapeutic efforts targeting specific miRNAs are being evaluated in animal models of HCC. The potential of miRNAs as biomarkers of disease or prognostic markers is being explored. Herein, we review studies of miRNA expression in human HCC, and discuss recent advances in knowledge about the involvement and role of selected miRNAs in disease pathogenesis, as biomarkers, or as therapeutic targets for HCC.
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