Enteroscopy, defined as direct visualization of the small bowel (SB) with the use of a fiberoptic or wireless endoscope, has progressed considerably over the past several years. Technological advancements in the field have facilitated endoscopic evaluation of the SB. This comprehensive clinical review summarizes the latest modalities available to aid gastroenterologists in exploring the SB for evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, tumors, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease. Previous physical limitations in equipment that made a complete evaluation of the SB difficult have all but disappeared with the advent of capsule endoscopy, balloon-assisted enteroscopy, and spiral enteroscopy.
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