The RESPIRE trials: Two phase III, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

Timothy Aksamit, Tiemo Joerg Bandel, Margarita Criollo, Anthony De Soyza, J. Stuart Elborn, Elisabeth Operschall, Eva Polverino, Katrin Roth, Kevin L. Winthrop, Robert Wilson

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The primary goals of long-term disease management in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) are to reduce the number of exacerbations, and improve quality of life. However, currently no therapies are licensed for this. Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) has potential to be the first long-term intermittent therapy approved to reduce exacerbations in NCFB patients. The RESPIRE programme consists of two international phase III prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of the same design. Adult patients with idiopathic or post-infectious NCFB, a history of ≥ 2 exacerbations in the previous 12 months, and positive sputum culture for one of seven pre-specified pathogens, undergo stratified randomization 2:1 to receive twice-daily Ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo using a pocket-sized inhaler in one of two regimens: 28 days on/off treatment or 14 days on/off treatment. The treatment period is 48 weeks plus an 8-week follow-up after the last dose. The primary efficacy endpoints are time to first exacerbation after treatment initiation and frequency of exacerbations using a stringent definition of exacerbation. Secondary endpoints, including frequency of events using different exacerbation definitions, microbiology, quality of life and lung function will also be evaluated. The RESPIRE trials will determine the efficacy and safety of Ciprofloxacin DPI. The strict entry criteria and stratified randomization, the inclusion of two treatment regimens and a stringent definition of exacerbation should clarify the patient population best positioned to benefit from long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy. Additionally RESPIRE will increase understanding of NCFB treatment and could lead to an important new therapy for sufferers. Trial registration: The RESPIRE trials are registered in, ID number NCT01764841 (RESPIRE 1; date of registration January 8, 2013) and NCT02106832 (RESPIRE 2; date of registration April 4, 2014).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-85
Number of pages8
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
StatePublished - Jul 2017



  • Aerosolized antibiotics
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation
  • Exacerbations
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Respiratory infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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